We conducted seismic evaluations of a traditional wooden building using three-dimensional earthquake response analyses. The building is registered as one of the “Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto”, UNESCO World Heritage Site, and is located in a region of strong earthquake motion from a scenario earthquake. The structure is an invaluable asset, but it is at risk of damage resulting from earthquake. Our numerical estimation was based on a dynamic interaction analysis between the building and the surrounding ground because it was located on the slope of a hill with complicated geophysical features. We also conducted a dynamic non-interaction analysis of the structure for a comparison with the aforementioned interaction model. Boring explorations and geotechnical tests were conducted before the assessment in order to investigate the ground foundation. We included the surrounding ground for a more realistic analysis because the seismic estimation for a model consisting only of the main structure differs significantly from that of the structure-ground coupling model. The results showed that the main wooden building was at risk of partial damage as it exceeded the safety limits prescribed for a scenario earthquake, and would collapse in the case of double the amplitude of the scenario earthquake.
The purpose of the paper is to introduce qualitative methods as providing unique and critical contributions for developing risk reduction strategies at the local level. It summarises the principles and practices in study design, data collection and analysis and presents a synthesis of standards for ensuring rigor and enhancing credibility in qualitative research. The methodology involves a comprehensive literature review, which culled information from risk reduction research-related fields and years of field research experience. The findings reveal how the method can be used to understand complex social processes and capture more nuanced aspects of a phenomenon through the lens of the study community. Such qualitative studies are often exploratory and seek to generate novel insights using inductive rather than deductive approaches. They help uncover the beliefs, values, and motivations that underlie participants’ actions and behaviours, which are crucial in implementing DRR strategies at the local level. Disaster risk reduction research seeks to inform the development and evaluation of policy guidelines that foster effective interventions and these aspects of risks may be most appropriately examined using the qualitative research methods.