The concentrations of plasma free amino acids（PFAAs）are reported to change in human patients with cancer before and after chemotherapy. However, it is unclear in cancer dogs. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to investigate the changes in PFAAs before and after chemotherapy in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma（TCC）. We used the 3 TCC dogs in the current study. TCC dogs were administrated mitoxantrone via the intravascular route at the first day of the diagnosis and administration schedule was settled at 0 and 3 weeks. In addition, TCC dogs were orally administrated piroxicam by 6 weeks, once a day. Then, we measured the concentration of different 30 amino acids using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with pre-prandial plasma samples at 0, 1, 3 and 6 weeks. Significant changes were observed in mean plasma cystathionine concentration between before and after chemotherapy. Cystathionine is gradually decreased at 1 week and 3 weeks as compare to 0 week, thereafter increased at 6 weeks. Plasma cystathionine of TCC dogs might be utilized by the tumor cell. Therefore, these results indicate that PFAAs is affected by administration of anticancer drugs in TCC dogs. Further study is needed to confirm the relationship between TCC and PFAAs profile with more canine patients and longer experimental period.
The degu, which has recently become well known in Japan as an exotic pet, is a herbivorous rodent adapted to a low energy diet. If fed a rich diet it could be at risk of developing diabetes and dyslipidemia. We investigated the diets highly preferred by degus and their influence on postprandial blood glucose levels. We determined the normal fasting blood glucose levels（64.2±2.2mg/dl, SEM）in clinically healthy adult degus（n＝6）before the preference test. We used four types of diet―usual（pellets）, high fiber（timothy grass）, high sugar（dried pineapple）, and high fat（sunflower seeds）―to examine the animals' preferences and the influence of each diet on blood glucose levels after feeding. Intakes after 17 h of fasting were in the order of high fat（2.7±0.2g, SEM）, high sugar（2.4±0.2g）, high fiber（1.6±0.3g）, and usual（0.6±0.1g）. The peak postprandial blood glucose level was highest with high sugar（91.8±7.8mg/dl）, and lowest with high fat（68.7±3.9mg/dl）, but the levels on all diets were in the physiological range and returned to normal fasting levels within 150 min. Therefore, we suggest that the use of highly preferred diets is unlikely immediately to adversely affect the health of degus, although it may still do so in the case of permanent or habitual use.
When dogs have food allergy, home-prepared food can be desired. Further, some owners prefer to cook for their dogs. However, it is difficult for dog owners to formulate nutritionally well-balanced home-prepared foods. Therefore, we designed recipes of home-prepared food satisfying AAFCO dog food nutrient profiles（2016）, i.e. nutritionally complete foods. In addition, we designed the recipes that veterinarians and pet-food dietitians easily instruct owners and that owners easily purchase the ingredients at a local market. We formulated nutritionally complete foods consisting of basal food and supplementary food; the basal foods are the main sources of protein and carbohydrate and its ingredients are selected from routinely-consumed foodstuffs by general household, a supplementary food consisting of fixed ingredients are for supplying trace nutrients. We mainly referred STANDARD TABLES OF FOOD COMPOSITION IN JAPAN - 2015 -（Seventh Revised Version）for estimating nutrient concentrations in the designed foods. Metabolizable-energy（ME）content was calculated with modified Atwater factors and the nutritional adequacy was assessed by the estimated dietary nutrient-concentrations on the ME basis. It was difficult to satisfy the minimum level of calcium in the nutrient profiles using commonly used foodstuffs. Therefore, we determined mineral concentration in chicken egg shells, indicating that chicken egg shells can substitute for calcium additives in the complete foods. The basal foods almost satisfied essential-amino-acid concentrations but many trace nutrients were inadequate in the basal foods. The addition of supplementary food containing egg shells to basal foods makes all of trace nutrients adequate. Using our method of design for dog foods, dog owners easily prepare nutritionally complete foods satisfying AAFCO dog food nutrient profiles（2016）.
Exercise therapy as well as dietary and drug therapy are important therapies for diabetic patients. However, exercise therapy also has the risk of hypoglycemia and any other in diabetic patients. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate influence of dietary fiber amount（fiber diet or non-fiber diet）and starting time of exercise therapy on glucose metabolism in 3 dogs with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Exercise therapy was performed at postprandial 6 hours（Ex 6hr）and 10 hours（Ex 10hr）. As a result, blood glucose concentrations under Ex 6hr were decreased using in fiber and non-fiber diet groups. However, lowering of blood glucose concentration with fiber diet was stable as compared to that with non-fiber diet. Meanwhile, any changes of blood glucose concentrations was not observed in exercise therapy under Ex 10hr using both diet. In conclusion, post prandial exercise should be started at 10 hours postprandially regardless of dietary fiber content of food.
Anion-exchange（AEX）high-performance liquid chromatography（HPLC）methods are recently developed and can measure serum lipoproteins such as high-density lipoproteins（HDL）, low-density lipoproteins（LDL）, intermediate-density lipoproteins, and very-low-density lipoproteins in humans. However, AEX-HPLC analysis has not been applied in dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproducibility and precision of AEX-HPLC methods using serum samples from healthy dairy cows and the correlation between AEX-HPLC and other analytical methods（ultracentrifugation methods and gel permeation HPLC［GP-HPLC］）in six healthy dairy cows. Moreover, we evaluated the lipoprotein fraction in 24 dairy cows with different lactating and dry periods. Analytical reproducibility（intra- and inter-assay and diluted linearity assay）of AEX-HPLC methods in samples of dairy cows produced acceptable results. Furthermore, positive correlation coefficients between the values of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol concentration（HDL-C）, and LDL cholesterol concentration（LDL-C）were determined between AEX-HPLC and ultracentrifugation methods and between AEX-HPLC and GP-HPLC. During different lactating and dry periods, HDL-C and LDL-C increased from the early to mid-lactation stage and decreased during the dry lactation stage in healthy dairy cows. These results suggest that AEX-HPLC would be a useful method for evaluating the lipoprotein fraction in dairy cows.
The effects of daily administration of modified Gomi-Shodoku-In（MGSI）, which contains Portulaca oleracea L.（POL）, on serum fatty acids concentrations were investigated in ten clinically healthy beagles. The recommended dose（RD）group（n＝5）received 4 tablets, （containing 60％POL per 270 mg tablet, per day, while the high-dose（HD）group（n＝5）was given 10 tablets per day. The daily supplements dose was divided into 2 equal amounts and administered, mixed into food, twice daily, for 8 weeks. Serum fatty acid concentrations were determined by gas chromatography using an internal standard method. In the RD group, the post-dose（8W）eicosapentaenoic acid（EPA）levels were significantly higher than the pre-dose（Pre）levels（p＜0.01）; the 8W arachidonic acid（AA）levels were significantly lower than the Pre AA levels in the RD group（p＜0.05）. In the HD group, the 8W EPA levels were significantly higher than the Pre levels（p＜0.01）; 8W AA levels were significantly lower than Pre AA levels in the RD group（p＜0.05）. In the RD group, the 8W n-6/n-3 ratio was significantly lower than the Pre ratio（p＜0.05）. Similarly, in the HD group, the 8W n-6/n-3 ratio was significantly lower than the Pre ratio（p＜0.05）. In both groups, the 8W EPA/AA ratio was significantly higher than the Pre ratio（p＜0.01）. These changes in serum fatty acid composition support the use of MGSI for treating inflammatory diseases, including skin disorders, in dogs.
The Djungarian hamster（P. sungorus）and the Roborovskii hamster（P. roborovskii）belong to the same genus, Phodopus. The Djungarian hamster is tame toward people and shows sedative behavior, but the Roborovskii hamster is not tame toward people and exhibits hyperactivity compared with Djungarian hamsters. The current study investigated whether behaviors and levels of brain monoamine and amino acid in the two species of hamster are modified by social isolation. Anxiety-like behaviors in the open field test were increased by isolation irrespective of species. However, Roborovskii hamsters, but not Djungarian hamsters, showed a positive correlation between locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior during the open field test. In both the hippocampus and the cerebellum, levels of the branched chain amino acids, as well as those of L-histidine, L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine and L-arginine, were higher in Roborovskii hamsters than in Djungarian hamsters, but the reverse was true for levels of taurine. In the hippocampus, Roborovskii hamsters showed higher L-serine and lower D-serine levels compared with those in Djungarian hamsters. Most monoamines and their metabolites were higher in the hippocampus of Roborovskii hamsters than in that of Djungarian hamsters. However, social isolation scarcely influenced these differences between the two hamster species. In conclusion, our results suggest that the physiologically existing differences between the two hamsters are strongly fixed and the effect of isolation in modifying the physiological response in the two hamster species may be weak.
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