This study investigated the association between exercise type and self-rated health (SRH) in Japanese adults. A secondary data analysis was performed on the results of a cross-sectional study of 2,000 Japanese adults (20 years or older) who responded to the National Sports-Life Survey in 2012. The most-frequently practiced exercises were classified into five categories: simple movement without exercise equipment, complex movement without exercise equipment, non-confrontational movement with exercise equipment, confrontational movement with exercise equipment, and synchronous movement with exercise equipment. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between exercise type and poor SRH. Results showed that 1,459 (74.7%) participants enjoyed exercises or sports at least once in the past year, and 469 (24.0%), 32.9% non-exercisers vs. 21.2% exercisers, rated their health as fair or poor. Compared with simple movement without exercise equipment, the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for poor SRH were significantly higher for non-exercisers (1.98, 95% CI: 1.37-2.87) and significantly lower for confrontational movement with exercise equipment (0.61, 95% CI: 0.38-0.96) after adjusting for confounders. This study suggests that exercise type was associated with SRH. Exercisers participating in confrontational movement with exercise equipment indicated better SRH.
The possible difference in the pattern of cardiac work and stroke work response during exercise between long-distance runners and sprinters remains unclarified. The present study was conducted to elucidate the difference in these responses during exercise between long-distance runners and sprinters. A total of 11 female college athletes (5 long-distance runners and 6 sprinters) performed incremental bicycle exercise testing with respiratory gas exchange measurement. Cardiac index and stroke volume index were continuously measured during exercise by a thoracic impedance method (Physioflow). Cardiac work index (CWI) and stroke work index (SWI) were calculated as the product of cardiac index and mean blood pressure, and the product of stroke volume index and mean blood pressure, respectively. CWI progressively increased from rest to maximal exercise both in long-distance runners and sprinters. SWI progressively increased until maximal exercise in long-distance runners (at 150W: 89.5 ± 3.3 vs. at maximal exercise: 109.3 ± 6.8 g·m·m-2, p < 0.005), but plateaued at 150W in sprinters (at 150W: 107.9 ± 7.6 vs. at maximal exercise: 109.8 ± 6.7 g·m·m-2, p = N.S.). In conclusion, SWI progressively increased until maximal exercise in long-distance runners, but plateaued at submaximal exercise in sprinters. Judging from SWI response during exercise, long-distance runners might have a superior cardiac function compared to sprinters.
This study describes relationships between awareness of physical activity (PA) promotion and duration of PA and sedentary behavior (SB) in elderly Japanese. Following a community-wide intervention, 874 individuals 65 years or over were selected via population-based random sampling of 3,000 adults aged 20 years or over living in Fujisawa City, and asked to complete self-administered questionnaires; 550 responded and 373 with data on pertinent variables were included. Forty-eight percent (179/373) stated that they recognized elements of the Japanese PA guidelines such as the “Active Guide” and “+10 (plus ten).” The median duration of PA, of intensity at least equal to walking, and SB among all participants were 100 minutes/day and 300 minutes/day, respectively. Duration of PA did not significantly differ by promotion awareness (Odds Ratio (OR) for ≥100 minutes/day among those aware = 1.02, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.65-1.62); however, duration of SB did (OR for <300 minutes/day = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.01-2.53). Awareness of PA promotion in elderly Japanese is related to decreased SB, but not increased PA of intensity at least equal to walking.
This study examined the association between health-related risks and sitting time in three different domains covering a worker’s typical life. We investigated the beneficial effect of replacing sitting time with standing/walking time in the workplace using the isotemporal substitution model (ISM). The survey was administered through the Internet. We recruited 11,729 Japanese workers by approximating industry ratios based on the 2015 Japan Labor Force Survey. The sitting times of specific domains, i.e. while working (during working time), workday leisure time, and non-workday leisure time were collected by a validated questionnaire. We used multiple logistic regression analyses to determine associations between health-related risks and sitting time. Using the ISM approach, we estimated associations when we replaced sitting with standing/walking in the workplace, and included a model that examined subgroups of workers with and without exercise habits. The analyses involved 9,524 workers (43.4 ± 11.1 years). The longest sitting time (>7.7 h) while working (during working time) was associated with significant odds ratios (ORs) of diabetes (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.05-1.90), hyperlipidemia (1.58, 1.23-2.01) when compared to the shortest sitting time (<3.8 h). Replacing 1 h/day of sitting with an equal amount of standing/walking at the workplace was associated with a 4% decrease in risk for hyperlipidemia and 7% for heart disease. Furthermore, these results were noticeable for workers with non-exercise habits. In conclusion, this study suggests that, especially in the workplace, extended sitting time is associated with the risk of disease, and that replacing occupational sitting with standing can effectively reduce the risk of disease in workers, particularly for those with non-exercise habits.
A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) comprising a small number of food items may allow for more accurate assessment of habitual dietary intake in Japanese collegiate athletes. This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a commercially available FFQ (FFQg) with a newly added protein supplement item for assessing habitual dietary intake compared to the 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) method using multiple statistical tests. A total of 108 participants (46 males) completed the FFQg on two separate days (FFQg1 and FFQg2) and 24hDRs on three non-consecutive days (two weekdays and one weekend day). Percentage differences, cross-classification analysis by quintile and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (CCs) were calculated to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the FFQg. Results showed median percentage differences and de-attenuated CCs between the FFQg2 and 24hDRs were -3.4 (range: -46.8 - 25.1) and 0.33 (0.03 - 0.55), respectively, for 34 nutrients, and -16.1 (-51.4 - 45.0) and 0.34 (0.03 -0.64), respectively, for 18 food groups. Cross-classification analysis showed that median proportions of the “completely opposite category” between FFQg2 and 24hDRs for energy-adjusted intakes of nutrients and food groups were both within 5%. Median CCs for energy-adjusted intake between the FFQ1 and FFQ2 were 0.61 (0.40 - 0.82) for nutrients and 0.52 (0.40 - 0.87) for food groups. In conclusion, although estimating habitual dietary intake requires careful consideration, the FFQg offers reasonably valid measurements of ranking individuals to assess intakes of macronutrients and food groups in collegiate athletes, with a relatively good reproducibility.
To reduce the risk of long-term care, it is important to prevent the functional decline of the locomotorium of elderly individuals early in life. This study aimed to clarify locomotive syndrome (LS) in Japanese office workers. The participants included 263 workers that mainly performed deskwork. Participants performed the LS risk test and completed a self-administered questionnaire survey that focused on lifestyle-related diseases, anxiety about physical strength, pain in the locomotorium, and health-related quality of life. Sixty participants (22.8%) were at risk for LS, and 17.5% of these participants were in their 20s. Of the participants at risk for LS (LS group), 30.0% had anxiety about physical strength, which was a significantly high ratio compared to the 14.3% of participants who expressed anxiety about physical strength, but were not at risk for LS (non-LS group) (χ2 = 6.479, p < .05). There were significant differences between risk for LS and pain in the back and hip joints (χ2 = 5.813, p < .05, χ2 = 4.895, p < .05). The LS group had a significantly lower mean physical summary score than the non-LS group (t = 3.286, p < .01). Thus, an intervention to prevent LS is important during the early stages, and signs such as pain in the locomotorium and anxiety about physical strength must not be overlooked.