John Searleʼs discussion of the gaps in rational action raises serious problems for the commonsense view that an explanation of an agentʼs action in terms of her reason for doing what she did is a species of causal explanation. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the problems Searle's discussion raises and examine the relation between the experienced gaps and the neurobiological processes in the brain.
One of the recent promising theoretical approaches to accounts of the violation of rationality (or generalize the concept of rationality) in human decision making is quantum decision theory. In this expository review article, I introduce 1) problems of rationality in quantum decision theory and 2) relationships between psychophysics, theoretical neuroscience including neuroeconomics, and quantum decision theory.
This paper deals with the argument that the design thinking in engineering has an important viewpoint for ethics. The design thinking has two interpretations. First, I point out that these interpretations do not make the content of the design thinking clear. Second, I argue that the design thinking applies to all the practical problems, including ethical problems. Third, I show four features of the design thinking, namely complexity of constraints for solving a problem and trade-offs among the constraints, an ethical factor as one of the constraints, acceptance of multiple solutions and insolubility, and the design thinking as a method for agents.