This paper aims to precisely characterize the theoretical significance of the notion of truthmakers. First, the closeness of the alleged principle of truthmaker theory and the realistic intuition on which it rests is assessed, thereby determining to what extent a certain kind of general objection against truthmaker theory carries weight. Second, the principle of truthmaker theory is reformulated on the basis of this assessment, and truthmaker theory is argued to offer a methodological role for identifying fundamental entities that ground metaphysically nonfundamental truths. The discussion suggests a sophisticated nonQuinean criterion of ontological commitment.
The foremost aim of this paper is to realize the fourth part of the Aufbau. This part, which provides an actual phenomenalistic constitution system, is interpretable from a Kantian perspective (§§1-4). But Carnap plotted to overcome Kantʼs old style of philosophy as well. We review this aspect of his constitution, focusing on space (§§7-13) and time (§§5-6), especially.
David Lewis argues that the thesis of Humility follows from two metaphysical principles; combinatorial principle and quidditism. The thesis has received attention of philosophers because of its skeptical implication, but only by focusing on that point one may underestimate the significance of Humility. Another implication drawn from the thesis pertains to the methodological issue, that is, justification of metaphysical principles. A key for the justification of two metaphysical principles in question is correspondence between our thought and the world, and it is required to develop modal epistemology in the way to oppose to Saul Kripke's view.
This review concerns Professor Hitoshi Nagai's recent book, Wittgenstein no Goshin (Wittgenstein's Misdiagnosis). In this book, Professor Nagai makes his understanding of the latter part of Wittgenstein's “Blue Book”. He argues that Wittgenstein set up an epoch-making solipsism, which Professor Nagai calls “Wittgenstein's solipsism” or “linguistic solipsism”, but he adds that Wittgenstein himself misunderstood the meaning and significance of this solipsism. In this review, I consider the validity of Professor Nagai's arguments.
In this paper, we would present an overview of the recent studies on the role of diagram in mathematics. Traditionally, mathematicians and philosophers had thought that diagram should not be used in mathematical proofs, because relying on diagram would cause to various types of fallacies. But recently, some logicians and philosophers try to show that diagram has a legitimate place in proving mathematical theorems. We would review such trends of studies and provide some perspective from viewpoint of philosophy of mathematics.