Does Pegasus fly? We believe most of you would answer “yes”without thinking it actually exists in this world. On the other hand,W. V. Quine argued that if we let some existential formula be true,we have to commit the existence of the object which is essential to let the formula be true. So that it can be said that there is a gap between Quine’s ontological argument and ontology in our daily life. Our goal in this paper is to fill the gap and expand Quine’s argument by relying on Meinongian philosophy, especially G. Priest’s neo-Meinongianism called Noneism, which admits different types of existence.
Philosophers of mind have advanced three approaches in the project of naturalizing semantics: information semantics, conceptual role semantics, and teleo-semantics. This paper examines the most celebrated but complicated version of teleo-semantics, that is, Millikan's theory of representations. The first half of this paper (section 1-3) motivates and formulates her theory. The latter half (section 4-6) provides clarification of the two technical notions in terms of which Millikan's theory is formulated. One is the cooperation among the producers and the consumers of the representations. The other is the Normal conditions where the consumers of the representations function properly.
In Realism and Naturalizing Knowledge (Keisho Shobo, 2013), Ryo Uehara carefully formulates the homeostatic property cluster theory of natural kinds and expands it by applying this framework to artifacts and knowledge and thereby drawing them in the naturalistic picture of the world. This is a substantial addition to the development of naturalistic philosophy in Japan. In this essay I shall make general comments on his account of natural kinds in the following respects: Uehara's distinction between real and nominal kinds, his objection to the species-as-individual thesis, the relative lack of attention to the distinction between the realism of natural kinds and the scientific realism, and finally, races as possible natural kinds.
‘Quantum Enigma: An Introduction to Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics’ is an introductory Japanese book for readers who are not familiar with philosophical problems in quantum mechanics. This book consists of three parts: the preliminary knowledge of philosophy of quantum mechanics, the interpretation problem of quantum mechanics, and philosophical problems except for the interpretation problem. In the present review, I make several critical comments on the descriptions in the book.