Journal of Reproduction and Development
Online ISSN : 1348-4400
Print ISSN : 0916-8818
ISSN-L : 0916-8818
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Displaying 1-14 of 14 articles from this issue
  • Minoru SAKAGUCHI, Hiromi KUSAKA, Takeshi YAMAZAKI
    Article ID: 2022-098
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: December 02, 2022
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    It has been suggested that domestication has turned cattle from seasonal breeders to annual breeders. This study examined the seasonal differences in early postpartum ovulation and subsequent reproductive performance in 542 Holstein cows. Cows displaying corpora lutea in the ovary at 26 days postpartum were defined as early ovulators. Factors affecting the occurrence of early ovulation were analyzed, and subsequent reproductive traits were compared between cows with and without early ovulation. During the summer season, 70.5% of calving cows showed early ovulation, whereas 48.7, 39.2, and 47.2% presented this condition in autumn, winter, and spring, respectively (P < 0.01). Third parity cows showed early ovulation more often than their first parity counterparts (P < 0.05). Cows with a 2.50 to 3.00 or > 3.00 body condition score (BCS) more frequently became early ovulators than those with BCSs < 2.50 (P < 0.001). Calving year was a risk factor, and uterine abnormalities were also often risk factors for early ovulation. The survival analysis showed that seasonal differences in the occurrence of early ovulation did not completely affect the time to first service and pregnancy. Proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that calving year, parity, and early ovulation were risk factors for the time to first service and that calving year was a risk factor for the time to pregnancy. In conclusion, domesticated dairy cows maintain seasonality in postpartum ovarian activity but not in subsequent fertility.

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  • Sayaka ITO, Yuna YAMAGUCHI, Sayaka KUBOTA, Yuki YAMAMOTO, Koji KIMURA
    Article ID: 2022-104
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 30, 2022
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    The oviductal epithelium consists of ciliated and non-ciliated cells, and their numbers vary depending on the segment of the oviduct and stage of the estrous cycle. Compared with the ampulla, fewer cyclic changes in the number of the two types of cells occur in the isthmus. Recently, we have reported that the epithelium in the ampullary oviduct is composed of many types of cells during different translational/transcriptional states, and their numbers change during the estrous cycle. However, detailed information regarding the epithelial cell subtypes lining the isthmic oviductal epithelium has not yet been reported. In this study, we aimed to identify the epithelial subtypes in the isthmus of the oviduct using immunohistochemistry. Some similarities and differences were observed between the ampulla and isthmus. As observed in the ampulla, epithelial cells of the isthmus expressed either FOXJ1 (ciliogenesis marker) or PAX8 (non-ciliated cell marker). The estrous cycle affected the number of Ki67+ cells but not that of ciliated cells. A relatively high rate of Ki67+ cells (60%) was observed at 1–4 days after the ovulation. Interestingly, unlike the ampulla, Ki67+/FOXJ1+ cells (12.6 ± 1.1%) were discovered in the isthmus. Double staining for Ki67 with FOXJ1, PAX8, or Centrin-1 (a centriole marker) revealed that Centrin-1 was localized on the apical surface of some Ki67+/FOXJ1+ cells. In conclusion, some epithelial cell subtypes exist in the isthmus of the oviduct and isthmus-specific cell subtypes have been identified. These region-specific cells may provide functional and morphological differences between the ampulla and isthmus of the oviduct.

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  • Hirohisa KYOGOKU, Tomoya S KITAJIMA
    Article ID: 2022-101
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 26, 2022
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    The study of the size of cells and organelles has a long history, dating back to the 1600s when cells were defined. In particular, various methods have elucidated the size of the nucleus and the mitotic spindle in several species. However, little research has been conducted on oocyte size and organelles in mammals, and many questions remain to be answered. The appropriate size is essential to cell function properly. Oocytes have a very large cytoplasm, which is more than 100 times larger than that of general somatic cells in mammals. In this review, we discuss how oocytes acquire an enormous cytoplasmic size and the adverse effects of a large cytoplasmic size on cellular functions.

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  • Jing WANG, Qing-Guo JIN, Rong-Ping LIU, Xin-Qin WANG, Ying-Hua LI, Nam ...
    Article ID: 2022-031
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 19, 2022
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    Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a dihydroflavonoid compound, exhibits a variety of biological activities, including antitumor activity. However, the effects of DHM on mammalian reproductive processes, especially during early embryonic development, remain unclear. In this study, we added DHM to porcine zygotic medium to explore the influence and underlying mechanisms of DHM on the developmental competence of parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. Supplementation with 5 μM DHM during in vitro culture (IVC) significantly improved blastocyst formation rate and increased the total number of cells in porcine embryos. Further, DHM supplementation also improved glutathione levels and mitochondrial membrane potential; reduced natural reactive oxygen species levels in blastomeres and apoptosis rate; upregulated Nanog, Oct4, SOD1, SOD2, Sirt1, and Bcl2 expression; and downregulated Beclin1, ATG12, and Bax expression. Collectively, DHM supplementation regulated oxidative stress during IVC and could act as a potential antioxidant during in vitro porcine oocytes maturation.

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  • Takuo HOJO, Dariusz J. SKARZYNSKI, Kiyoshi OKUDA
    Article ID: 2022-097
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 17, 2022
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    In mammals, the corpus luteum (CL) is a transient organ that secretes progesterone (P4). In the absence of pregnancy, the CL undergoes regression (luteolysis), which is a crucial preparation step for the next estrous cycle. Luteolysis, initiated by uterine prostaglandin F(PGF) in cattle, is usually divided into two phases, namely functional luteolysis characterized by a decline in P4 concentration and structural luteolysis characterized by the elimination of luteal tissues from the ovary. Programmed cell death (PCD) of luteal cells, including luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs) and luteal endothelial cells (LECs), plays a crucial role in structural luteolysis. The main types of PCD are caspase-dependent apoptosis (type 1), autophagic cell death (ACD) via the autophagy-related gene (ATG) family (type 2), and receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK)-dependent programmed necrosis (necroptosis, type 3). However, these PCD signaling pathways are not completely independent and interact with each other. Over the past several decades, most studies on luteolysis have focused on apoptosis as the principal mode of bovine luteal cell death. Recently, ATG family members were reported to be expressed in bovine CL, and their levels increased during luteolysis. Furthermore, the expression of RIPKs, which are crucial mediators of necroptosis, is reported to increase in bovine CL during luteolysis and is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines in bovine LSCs and LECs. Therefore, apoptosis, ACD, and necroptosis may contribute to bovine CL regression. In this article, we present the recent findings regarding the mechanisms of the three main types of PCD and the contribution of these mechanisms to luteolysis.

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  • Toshiaki SUMIYOSHI, Natumi ENDO, Tomomi TANAKA, Hideo KAMOMAE
    Article ID: 2021-122
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 16, 2022
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    The effect of confirmation of ovulation by rectal palpation and ultrasonography after artificial insemination (AI) on the development of the corpus luteum (CL) and conception rate was investigated in cows. A total of 90 clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were examined in this study. After AI, the cows were divided into three groups (30 cows per group). In Group I, ovulation was confirmed by rectal palpation at 24 h after AI. In Group II, ovulation was confirmed using transrectal ultrasonography 24 h after AI. In Group III, ovulation was not confirmed after AI. Day 0 was defined as the day when ovulation was confirmed in Groups I and II, and as the day after AI was performed in group III. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed on days 3, 5, 7, and 14 to measure the CL diameter, tissue area, and CL blood flow area, and the ratio of CL blood flow area to CL tissue area was calculated. On the day of CL measurement, blood samples were collected to determine the plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and estradiol-17β (E2). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 28 and 60 days after AI. A high conception rate of approximately 80% was achieved in Groups I and II, in which confirmation of ovulation was conducted. There were no differences in the diameter, tissue area, or blood flow area of the CL between the three groups. These results indicate that the confirmation of ovulation by rectal palpation and transrectal ultrasonography did not affect the formation and function of the CL or conception rate.

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  • Yuhei KOGASAKA, Sho MURAKAMI, Shiro YAMASHITA, Daisuke KIMURA, Yoshino ...
    Article ID: 2022-028
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: October 23, 2022
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    NANOS3 is an evolutionarily conserved gene expressed in primordial germ cells that is important for germ cell development. Germ cell deletion by NANOS3 knockout has been reported in several mammalian species, but its function in pigs is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the germline effects of NANOS3 knockout in pigs using CRISPR/Cas9. Embryo transfer of CRISPR/Cas9-modified embryos produced ten offspring, of which one showed wild-type NANOS3 alleles, eight had two mutant NANOS3 alleles, and the other exhibited mosaicism (four mutant alleles). Histological analysis revealed no germ cells in the testes or ovaries of any of the nine mutant pigs. These results demonstrated that NANOS3 is crucial for porcine germ cell production.

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  • Mito KANATSU-SHINOHARA, Jiyoung LEE, Takehiro MIYAZAKI, Hiroko MORIMOT ...
    Article ID: 2022-090
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: October 13, 2022
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    Oogenesis depends on close interactions between oocytes and granulosa cells. Abnormal signaling between these cell types can result in infertility. However, attempts to manipulate oocyte-granulosa cell interactions have had limited success, likely due to the blood-follicle barrier (BFB), which prevents the penetration of exogenous materials into ovarian follicles. Here, we used adenoviruses (AVs) to manipulate the oocyte-granulosa cell interactions. AVs penetrated the BFB and transduced granulosa cells through ovarian microinjection. Although AVs caused transient inflammation, they did not impair fertility in wild-type mice. Introduction of Kitl-expressing AVs into congenitally infertile KitlSl-t/KitlSl-t mutant mouse ovaries, which contained only primordial follicles because of a lack of Kitl expression, restored fertility through natural mating. The offspring showed no evidence of AV integration and exhibited normal genomic imprinting patterns for imprinted genes. These results demonstrate the usefulness of AVs for manipulating oogenesis and suggest the possibility of gene therapies for human female infertility.

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  • Charley-Lea POLLARD, Zamira GIBB, Aleona SWEGEN, Christopher G. GRUPEN
    Article ID: 2022-052
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: September 27, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Oocyte quality is the limiting factor in female fertility. It is well known that maternal nutrition plays a role in reproductive function, and manipulating nutrition to improve fertility in livestock has been common practice in the past, particularly with respect to negative energy balance in cattle. A deficiency in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) production has been associated with increased incidences of miscarriage and congenital defects in humans and mice, while elevating NAD+ through dietary supplements in aged subjects improved oocyte quality and embryo development. NAD+ is consumed by Sirtuins and poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs) within the cell and thus need constant replenishment in order to maintain various cellular functions. Sirtuins and PARPs play important roles in oocyte maturation and embryo development, and their activation may prove beneficial to in vitro embryo production and livestock breeding programs. This review examines the roles of NAD+, Sirtuins and PARPs in aspects of fertility, providing insights into the potential use of NAD+-elevating treatments in livestock breeding and embryo production programs.

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  • Maajid Hassan BHAT, Syed Hilal YAQOOB, Firdous Ahmad KHAN, Hilal Musad ...
    Article ID: 2018-126e
    Published: 2019
    Advance online publication: May 15, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This article released online on March 5, 2019 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in Journal of Reproduction and Development at author’s request.

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  • Adeleh ZABIHI, Hamed Karami SHABANKAREH, Hadi HAJARIAN, Saheb FOROUTAN ...
    Article ID: 2018-102e
    Published: 2019
    Advance online publication: March 28, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This article released online on January 18, 2019 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Reproduction and Development at author’s request.

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  • Maajid Hassan BHAT, Syed Hilal YAQOOB, Firdous Ahmad KHAN, Hilal Musad ...
    Article ID: 2018-126
    Published: 2019
    Advance online publication: March 05, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on March 5, 2019 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in Journal of Reproduction and Development at author’s request.
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  • Adeleh ZABIHI, Hamed Karami SHABANKAREH, Hadi HAJARIAN, Saheb FOROUTAN ...
    Article ID: 2018-102
    Published: 2019
    Advance online publication: January 18, 2019
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article released online on January 18, 2019 as advance publication was withdrawn from consideration for publication in The Journal of Reproduction and Development at author’s request.
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  • Charlie HUVENEERS, Nicholas M. OTWAY, Megan T. STORRIE, Robert G. HARC ...
    Article ID: 20144
    Published: 2009
    Advance online publication: February 23, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    This article was retracted. See the Notification.
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