Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a neurological condition caused by damage to either the right or left hemisphere of the brain, resulting in the neglect of stimuli presented on the opposite side. Patients with USN experience challenges in performing activities of daily living, and they may require prolonged hospital stay. Currently, evidence-based training options for neglect recovery are limited due to lesion size and area variations, which cause different symptoms. To develop effective rehabilitation strategies, animal models that can control lesion size and area must be developed. The rodent models of USN, which were developed in the late 1900s, have identified the key brain regions affecting attentional functions. These regions include the medial agranular cortex and posterior parietal cortex. The network involving the superior colliculus, striatum, hypothalamus, and thalamus is also essential for spatial attention and direction selection. Different behavioral tasks and optogenetics have identified detailed brain region functions in USN, and advancements in treatment exploration have been made using rodent models. This review introduced the existing rodent models of USN, focused on the neurological mechanisms responsible for USN, and discussed the potential application of validated treatment methods from rodent models to humans.