Recently, cyber-risks in modern intelligent vehicles have become concerns to society. First, carry-in devices, such as smart-phones and USB-memory-devices used outside of vehicles expose vehicles to various cyber-attacks from the external IT (Information Technology) world. Next, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) which provide position information to many valuable functions have vulnerabilities to jamming and spoofing. Finally, emerging vehicle-to-vehicle communication poses security challenges, because of its unique communication schema where all neighboring vehicles exchange data within a short duration. In this report, we examine these vulnerabilities’ impact on vehicle cyber-security and introduce various countermeasures against these vulnerabilities in the US.
Wheel aerodynamics of passenger cars has recently been under close investigation due to its influence on the aerodynamic forces on the vehicle. In modern wind-tunnels the wheel rotation can be resembled close to reality, while, in their CFD development process, car manufactures rely on simplified models for considering rotating wheels. In this paper, model-scale generic and production wheels are investigated experimentally, in respect of the influence of geometry, camber and a brake disc. The data is used to assess the accuracy of CFD simulations using open-source software and their applicability in a manufacturer’s CFD process.