To identify possibility of biodiversity banking in Japan, we researched banking systems in Germany where the system is very active other than USA. According to results, we found three points which would accelerate introduction of the system into Japan. First point is that “compensation,” as the last resort in mitigation hierarchy, can be paid by money. Second point is that majority of banks are operated by local governments. These points are similar to in-lieu fee program in USA. Third point is that simple quantitative evaluation methods are used to assess “no net loss.” Although it is not appropriate to assess impacts only by vegetation in Japan where habitats are fragmented, simplicity and adaptability will be important.
Intensive participatory and “consensus-based” Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework is formulated, and then, applied for a JICA-funded “Project on Integrated Urban Development Master Plan (MP) for the City of Nairobi in the Republic of Kenya”. Approximately 100 stakeholder meetings are conducted across Nairobi region, and a broad consensus of the proposed urban development MP is established through a series of discussions held at each stakeholder meeting, in association with the development of the website as well as hot lines, established for the proposed MP development project.
The effect of low-frequency noise on the feeding and growth of 0+ year red sea bream Pagrus major was examined. Four groups (50 fish/group) of fish were reared in separate 600 L circular tanks and fed using self-feeders for 55 days. During day 20 to day 38, each group was exposed to one of four different sound conditions (100 Hz pure tone emitted from underwater speaker system at output sound pressure levels of 100, 120 and 140 dB re 1 μPa @1 m, or ambient noise only). Low-frequency noise exposure did not affect feeding rhythm, feed intake and growth performance. However, 140 dB group fish showed strong startle response at onset of low-frequency noise exposure, and did not stay near underwater speaker through out the low-frequency noise exposure period.
The role of NGOs in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) is large. But the degree of involvement of the Japanese NGOs has not been grasped. Therefore, by carrying out a questionnaire survey, we examined whether the NGOs is involved in how much of the EIA. I found out that there isn't a lot of that according to the result. It was possible to concentrate an opinion of NGOs about a problem of EIA and a plan of improvement.