Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) frequently relapses in the central nervous system (CNS) despite prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy, and the outcome for CNS recurrence of PTL is very poor. We report a case of isolated CNS recurrence of bilateral PTL. Our patient achieved complete response (CR) after rituximab-combination chemotherapy for PTL. Approximately five years later, isolated CNS recurrence of PTL occurred. Our patient achieved CR again after high-dose methotrexate therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with a conditioning regimen of thiotepa and busulfan as a consolidation therapy. The secondary failure of platelet recovery, probably caused by busulfan, occurred after the platelet engraftment. Our patient has remained in CR for over three years. The treatment strategy for CNS recurrence of PTL is mainly whole-brain radiotherapy or high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy; however, CNS recurrence of PTL may occur again even after achieving CR. ASCT with a conditioning regimen of thiotepa and busulfan is the optimal consolidation therapy for secondary CNS lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case of a patient with isolated CNS recurrence of PTL successfully treated by ASCT with a conditioning regimen of thiotepa and busulfan as a consolidation therapy.
We report a case of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which developed 9 years after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). A 65-year-old male was diagnosed with PTCL-NOS. After 6 cycles of the CHOP (cyclophosphamide [CPA], doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) regimen, he achieved a first complete response (CR). He relapsed 33 months later and received salvage chemotherapy, which consisted of the CHASE regimen (CPA, high-dose cytarabine, dexamethasone, and etoposide). During the recovery phase of the first cycle of CHASE, his peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were harvested and frozen in 2 bags. After 2 courses of CHASE, he underwent autologous PBSCT, which involved the use of the LEED preconditioning regimen (melphalan, CPA, etoposide, and dexamethasone) and one of the frozen bags. This resulted in a second CR. At 39 months after PBSCT, he relapsed with a tumor in his right arm. After it was resected, he received eight cycles of brentuximab vedotin and 45 Gy of involved-field irradiation concurrently and achieved a third CR. Nine years after autologous PBSCT, he was diagnosed with MDS with excess blasts 2 (MDS-EB-2). His disease progressed to acute myeloid leukemia after 2 courses of azacitidine therapy. He successfully underwent a second autologous PBSCT involving the busulfan and melphalan preconditioning regimen and the other frozen bag, which had been stored for 9 years. He has been in complete cytogenetic remission for 1 year since the second autologous PBSCT.
Methotrexate (MTX)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder in patients treated with MTX. The mechanism of pathogenesis is still elusive, but it is thought to be a complex interplay of factors, such as underlying autoimmune disease activity, MTX use, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and aging. The NOTCH genes encode receptors for a signaling pathway that regulates various fundamental cellular processes, such as proliferation and differentiation during embryonic development. Mutations of NOTCH1 have been reported in B-cell tumors, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Recently, it has also been reported that NOTCH1 mutations are found in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, and in CD20-positive cells in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, which might be associated with lymphomagenesis in immunodeficiency. In this study, to investigate the association of NOTCH1 in the pathogenesis of MTX-LPD, we evaluated protein expression of Notch1 in nuclei immunohistochemically in MTX-LPD cases [histologically DLBCL-type (n = 24) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL)-type (n = 24)] and de novo lymphoma cases [DLBCL (n = 19) and CHL (n = 15)]. The results showed that among MTX-LPD cases, the expression of Notch1 protein was significantly higher in the DLBCL type than in the CHL type (P < 0.001). In addition, among DLBCL morphology cases, expression of Notch1 tended to be higher in MTX-LPD than in the de novo group; however this difference was not significant (P = 0.0605). The results showed that NOTCH1 may be involved in the proliferation and tumorigenesis of B cells under the use of MTX. Further research, including genetic studies, is necessary.
Peritoneal lymphomatosis (PL) is a rare lymphoma-associated condition defined as the dissemination of lymphoma cells in the peritoneum. An 82-year-old man presented with abdominal pain, heartburn, and high fever. Radiological findings, including positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and gastrointestinal fiberscopy, showed diffuse thickening of the peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery; however, no lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, or gastrointestinal lesions were observed. Under suspicion of peritonitis carcinomatosa of unknown origin, exploratory laparoscopy was performed that revealed multiple white nodules and masses on the surfaces of the peritoneum, mesentery, and intestinal serosa. The histopathological and cytogenetic findings of the peritoneum revealed high-grade B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, and a gain of MYC by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. The patient was treated with two cycles of R-CHOP therapy, followed by six cycles of dose-adjusted EPOCH-R therapy, and a complete metabolic response was confirmed by PET-CT. Since there are no specific radiological findings to confirm the diagnosis of PL, a histopathological diagnosis is usually required. Most PL exhibit an aggressive lymphoma phenotype and can be cured by appropriate chemotherapy. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are desirable.