Background: Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is bound to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma, and HDL has anticoagulation effects. However, the association between ApoM and biomarkers of coagulation was unclear. Therefore, we investigated relationships between ApoM and biomarkers of coagulation. Methods: Serum samples from 233 Japanese participants including with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or healthy controls were analyzed. Serum ApoM levels were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: Analysis of all 233 participants showed that ApoM levels were positively correlated with age (r= 0.284, p< 0.001), total cholesterol (TC; r= 0.477, p< 0.001), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C; r= 0.234, p< 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; r= 0.331, p< 0.001). Higher ApoM levels were correlated with shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT; r=- 0.226, p= 0.001) and prothrombin time (PT, %; r= 0.326, p< 0.001). Separate analysis of the 115 healthy controls showed that ApoM levels were positively correlated with age, TC, HDL-C and LDL-C, and higher ApoM levels were correlated with shorter PT. Conclusion: Serum levels of ApoM may influence biomarkers of coagulation.
The Diagnostic criteria of AGC in Bethesda system includes broad spectrum pathological diagnoses. Forty-two cases diagnosed as AGC on Pap test were referred to our hospital over a period of four years. Almost half of AGC cytology was precancerous or early stage cancer, and about 30% of cases were invasive cancer. Only a quarter of the cases were normal or benign lesions. The glandular cell atypia of Pap smear included broad spectrum lesions in contrast to diagnostic criteria of squamous lesions. We should not hesitate to perform cone biopsy or more invasive surgery on cases in which confirmation of histological diagnosis is difficult.
Adenoid basal carcinoma (ABC) of the uterine cervix is rare neoplasia of low malignancy. There have been several reports of pure ABC frequently existing with more common malignant or benign uterine lesions of surgical specimens. We report an ABC of the uterine cervix. This lesion was very small, and reached the mucosal surface in only a very limited area. Cervical adenocarcinoma was most likely on cytological examination, but magnetic resonance imaging and positron-emission computed tomography did not depict malignant lesions in the pelvic cavity. Early endometrial carcinoma and tubal carcinoma could not be ruled out, so under informed consent, simple hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Pathological examination clarified that there was small pure ABC lesion in the uterine cervix, mostly covered by cervical mucosa.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic condition with long term psychological and behavioural implications. Self-care is the cornerstone to adapt into this condition. Sociocultural appropriate self-care practices are vital aspects in nursing care. The article reviews literature on self-care among adolescents with T1DM considering sociocultural context and to discuss existing nursing care and its current issues within the Sri Lankan context. A systematic literature survey was conducted to review empirical studies from 2000 to 2014. Electronic databases PubMed and CINAHL were utilized. Personal interviews and relevant websites were accessed to explore existing nursing care and its current issues in Sri Lanka. PubMed displayed 1,065 articles for the key words ‘nursing’ and ‘Type 1 diabetes’ while CINAHL displayed 31 articles for the same. ‘Perceptions’, ‘associated characteristics’, ‘school behaviour’ and ‘family behaviour’ were identified as main categories in the literature. The nursing oriented articles relevant to self-care’, ‘sociocultural’, ‘Sri Lanka’ and ‘Type 1 diabetes’ were insufficient in number. Scientific studies pertaining to the field need to optimized. The unavailability of specialized nurse educators for childhood diabetes is a noticeable issue. The implementation of effective nursing interventions considering Sri Lankan sociocultural context is recommended.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify how mothers perceive the situation when their one-month-old baby cries. Methods: Subjects were mothers who gave birth to full-term babies, and both mothers and babies were progressing normally since the birth. At the one-month baby check-ups, mothers participated in a semi-structured interview, after which a Berelson content analysis was used to conduct a qualitative inductive analysis. Results: Mothers' perceptions of their babies' crying were divided into eight categories: "crying is normal", "having family to help provides peace of mind", "it is difficult for a mother to deal by herself with a crying infant", "the mother is the one who deals with her baby when it cries", "a sense of satisfaction when the baby cries", "crying needs to be dealt with in certain specific ways", "a sense of relief when crying is successfully stopped", "concern about bothering others with a crying baby". Conclusion: Mothers had peace of mind when they had family to help them and were relieved when they were able to deal successfully with their babies crying. Conversely, they were perplexed when they were unsuccessful. They felt they had to handle crying in certain specific ways, but they were also afraid they might not be able to. Changing this way of thinking could be a way to reduce and alleviate negative emotions in mothers.
A questionnaire survey was conducted among hospital nurses in Gunma Prefecture to know the actual state of "nursing activities considering home care". Twenty-five items in the following categories were surveyed: A. Provision of nursing care while taking patients' lives after discharge into consideration; B. Utilization of community resources; C. Simplification of care methods to reduce the burden on patients and their families; D. Management based on the prediction of changes in disease conditions; and E. Multi-occupational cooperation. The questionnaire was answered by 2,136 nurses in 11 hospitals in the prefecture. The survey results revealed that understanding of patients' living conditions before admission, understanding of patients' and families' wishes and summary description were implemented relatively well, with an implementation rate of more than 50%. However, understanding of patients' home environment, understanding of community resources, assessment for and consultation on disability or long-term care insurance certification, simplification of care methods, management based on future prediction, and multi-occupational cooperation were not implemented well, with an implementation rate of 40% or less. Therefore, it was suggested that development of a continuing education program to comprehensively train nurses from these viewpoints is required.
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