The immunological memory in antibody response of mice to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated at the level of antibody-producing cells or their precursor B cells and thymus-dependent helper T cells. Spleen cells obtained from mice previously primed with alum-precipitated BSA at various times were transferred to irradiated syngeneic mice. Spleen cells from mice immunized 8 days or 64 days before presented a high degree of adoptive secondary response, whereas the adoptive response of cells from mice immunized 2 days previously was found to be inferior even to that of unprimed spleen cells. Primed spleen cells treated with anti-mouse thymocyte rabbit serum plus complement were supplemented with normal thymus cells and the restoration of the responsiveness was examined. It was suggested that the memory was carried mainly by T cells in the earlier phases of the immunological memory (2 days or 8 days after the primary immunization). On the other hand, the immunological memory in the B-cell population was shown to grow gradually toward the later phase (later than 40 days).
Antigenic analyses of five species of the genus Pichia were carried out for taxonomic study by the slide agglutination method using monospecific and absorbed antisera and the agglutinin absorption technique. Comparative studies were also performed with a few strains of each of the same species and their classifications are discussed with respect to the antigenic structures and the patterns of proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra of their cell wall polysaccharides. Pichia delftensis and Pichia zaruensis possessed thermostable antigens 1, 2, 5 and 11, and the former had also thermolabile antigen m. Both species were closely related to Candida krusei. Pichia toletana possessed thermostable antigens 1, 2, 5, 11, 17 and 49. Pichia bovis contained thermostable antigens 1, 2, 14, 15, 16, 20 and 21, and it was related to most species of the genus Hansenula, although assimilation of potassium nitrate was negative. Finally, Pichia etchellsii possessed thermostable antigens 1, 2, 3, 4, 9 and 14, and was closely related to Pichia vini. Patterns of PMR spectra of mannans of these species also supported their serological relationships. Therefore, P. delftensis, P. zaruensis and P. etchellsii are considered to be the synonyms of Pichia fluxuum, Pichia dispora and P. vini respectively, although P. toletana and P. bovis are independent species.
Induction and suppression of splenomegaly and cytotoxicity against C57BL/6 cells were studied in (AKR×C57BL/6) F1 hybrid adult mice after the transfer of AKR lymphoid and bone marrow cells. 1) Splenomegaly and cytotoxicity were dissociated in the developmental stages of the graft-versus-host reaction. When lymphoid and bone marrow cells of normal AKR mice were injected into F1 recipients, splenomegaly was prominent on days 5 and 7, but cytotoxicity of spleen cells was not detected. Splenomegaly became less prominent but the cytotoxicity became detectable on day 14 after the injection. 2) Cytotoxic activity of spleen cells of F1 recipients was suppressed by the treatment of AKR donors with C57BL/6 lymphoid cells in Freund's complete adjuvant. Splenomegaly, however, was substantially enhanced by such a treatment of the donors. On the other hand, induction of the cytotoxic activity was facilitated by the treatment of donors with C57BL/6 skin grafts. 3) F1 hybrid mice could be protected from the graft-versus-host reaction by the injection of AKR anti-C57BL/6 serum or pretreatment of AKR donors with sonicated cellular antigens of C57BL/6.
Host DNA synthesis-suppressing factor (DSF) produced into culture fluid of cloned HeLa cells (HeLa C-9) infected with a small plaque variant of Toyoshima strain of measles virus was purified by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, chromatography on CM-cellulose and DEAE-cellulose, and gel-filtration on Sephadex G-100 and G-200. The specific activity of the finally purified DSF was 302 units/mg of protein representing approximately 300-fold purification. The molecular weight of DSF was estimated to be about 55000. By isoelectric focusing, two kinds of DSF having isoelectric points of 4.24 and 5.24 were detectable. The purified DSF was able to suppress host DNA synthesis of HeLa cells, continuous human lymphoid cells (NC-37), mouse L cells and Meth-A cells derived from an ascitic tumor of the mouse. The activity of the purified DSF was inactivated by heating at 56 C for 30 min or by treatment with trypsin.
Cleavage of C3 by CVF-B was demonstrated by hemolytic, immunoelectrophoretic and immune adherence reactions. No cleavage of C5 was detected by immunoelectrophoresis, but C5 hemolytic activity, assayed with EAC1423, decreased although less than C3 hemolytic activity. The co-existence of C3 with limiting amounts of C5 did not reduce the final degree of hemolysis of guinea pig erythrocytes (GPE) induced by late-acting components C6 through C9 and CVF-B. Thus, a CVF-B hemolytic system composed of GPE, C5 through C9 and CVF-B provided a method for titration of terminal components of human complement. CVF-B was able to generate hemolytically active sites of C567 on GPE by activation of C5, C6 and C7. The complex C567 in the fluid-phase decayed within 1 min but C567 on GPE was quite stable. Originally insensitive sheep erythrocytes became sensitive to the CVF-B hemolytic system if C3b sites were present, suggesting that cell-bound C3b played a role in orienting the positions of C567 to be fixed. CVF-B could be recovered quantitatively from the supernatant of the reaction mixture in which the hemolytically active intermediate GPEC5678 had been formed through the interaction between C5 to C8 and CVF-B.
A small rod, capable of forming crater-like plaques on lawns of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, was isolated from a marine environment. The isolate was a gram-negative straight rod with round ends and was small in size, equal to that of halophilic Bdellovibrio strain 5501. The isolate appeared to have close taxonomic relationships to Cytophaga, since this bacterium moved slowly in a gliding manner on a solid agar surface, hydrolyzed agar and starch, contained yellow pigment and was halophilic. The isolate was able to grow not only under host-dependent but also under host-independent conditions when low nutrient media were used for cultivation, and its bacteriolytic mode was different from that of Bdellovibrio, an endoparasite. The isolate was halophilic and required Mg++ and Ca++ in addition to 3% saline for growth. The isolate showed a broad host range when tested for plaque-forming activity on gram-negative bacteria but not on the gram-positive bacteria tested so far.
Heat-activated spores of Bacillus cereus T germinate rapidly in the presence of L-alanine alone or inosine alone. In contrast, unactivated spores can not germinate in the presence of either germinant alone but rapidly in the presence of both germinants. The highest level of cooperative action of L-alanine and inosine on the germination was observed when they were present in a ratio 1:1. Preincubations of unactivated spores with L-alanine or inosine had opposite effects on the subsequent germination in the presence of both germinants: preincubation with L-alanine stimulated the initiation of subsequent germination, while preincubation with inosine inhibited it. These results suggest that germination of unactivated spores initiated by L-alanine and inosine includes two steps, the first initiated by L-alanine and the second prompted by inosine. The effect of preincubation of unactivated spores with L-alanine was not diminished by washings. The pH dependence of the preincubation of unactivated spores was not so marked as that of the subsequent germination in the presence of inosine.
Binding of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to disrupted tobacco leaf membrane was studied. Mem-brane isolated from tobacco leaves was treated successively with (NH4)2SO4, Li-diiodosalicylate and then pronase. TMV-binding substance was thus isolated in a soluble form. From enzymatic digestion experiments, it was suggested that the binding substance was composed of lipid and carbohydrate.
The effects of several kinds of adjuvants or lectins, such as Corynebacterium parvum, dextran, poly AU, poly IC, dibutyryl cAMP, concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) on anti-trinitrophenyl (TNP) direct plaque-forming cells (PFC) in the spleen of mice and the affinity of antibodies produced by these PFC were examined. The numbers of anti-TNP PFC in the spleens of mice which had been injected with C. parvum 7 days in advance were greater than those in controls after immunization with TNP-coupled heterologous erythrocytes, while the affinity of antibodies released by these PFC was not affected. On the contrary, simultaneous injection of dextran with TNP-erythrocytes did not increase the numbers of splenic anti-TNP PFC, but height-ened the affinity of antibodies released by these PFC. Copolymers of nucleotides, poly AU and poly IC, were capable of enhancing splenic anti-TNP PFC responses, but showed almost no altering of PFC affinity. Dibutyryl cAMP did not have any effect on this system. Con A had potencies to both augment the number of anti-TNP PFC and heighten the PFC affinity, while PHA seemed to lack these potencies. Injection of PWM in the presence of antigen increased the number of anti-TNP PFC and heightened slightly the PFC affinity. These results indicate that the heightening of the affinity at the cellular level is regulated in ways different from the augmenting effects on the number of anti-TNP PFC by adjuvants or lectins. These results are discussed in the light of the mode of action of the substances used.