Purpose: The feasibility of steady-state sequences for 17O imaging was evaluated based on a kinetic analysis of the brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this prospective study with written informed consent. Dynamic 2D or 3D steady-state sequences were performed in five and nine participants, respectively, with different parameters using a 3T scanner. During two consecutive dynamic scans, saline was intravenously administered for control purposes in the first scan, and 20% 17O-labeled water (1 mL/Kg) was administered in the second scan. Signal changes relative to the baseline were calculated, and kinetic analyses of the curves were conducted for all voxels. Region of interest analysis was performed in the brain parenchyma, choroid plexus, and CSF spaces.
Results: Average signal drops were significantly larger in the 17O group than in the controls for most of the imaging parameters. Different kinetic parameters were observed between the brain parenchyma and CSF spaces. Average and maximum signal drops were significantly larger in the CSF spaces and choroid plexus than in the brain parenchyma. Bolus arrival, time to peak, and the first moment of dynamic curves of 17O in the CSF space were delayed compared to that in the brain parenchyma. Significant differences between the ventricle and subarachnoid space were also noted.
Conclusion: Steady-state sequences are feasible for indirect 17O imaging with reasonable temporal resolution; this result is potentially important for the analysis of water kinetics and aquaporin function for several disorders.
We report two cases of pathologically proven intracranial epidermoid cysts. Both cases were scanned with diffusion-weighted imaging using pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) and oscillating gradient spin-echo (OGSE; 50 Hz) prototype sequences with diffusion times of 47.3 ms and 8.5 ms, respectively. The apparent diffusion coefficient measured by OGSE was higher than that measured by PGSE, indicating the spatial restriction of water diffusion in the laminated keratin layers within the cyst as demonstrated by histopathology.
Purpose: The quantitation accuracy in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) improves at higher B0 field. However, a larger chemical shift displacement (CSD) and stronger B1 inhomogeneity exist. In this work, we evaluate the quantitation accuracy for the spectra of metabolite mixtures in phantom experiments at 4.7T. We demonstrate a position-dependent error in quantitation and propose a correction method by measuring water signals.
Materials and Methods: All experiments were conducted on a whole-body 4.7T magnetic resonance (MR) system with a quadrature volume coil for transmission and reception. We arranged three bottles filled with metabolite solutions of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr) in a vertical row inside a cylindrical phantom filled with water. Peak areas of three singlets of NAA and Cr were measured on three 1H spectra at three volume of interests (VOIs) inside three bottles. We also measured a series of water spectra with a shifted carrier frequency and measured a reception sensitivity map.
Results: The ratios of NAA and Cr at 3.92 ppm to Cr at 3.01 ppm differed amongst the three VOIs in peak area, which leads to a position-dependent error. The nature of slope depicting the relationship between peak areas and the shifted values of frequency was like that between the reception sensitivities and displacement at every VOI.
Conclusion: CSD and inhomogeneity of reception sensitivity cause amplitude modulation along the direction of chemical shift on the spectra, resulting in a quantitation error. This error may be more significant at higher B0 field where CSD and B1 inhomogeneity are more severe. This error may also occur in reception using a surface coil having inhomogeneous B1. Since this type of error is around a few percent, the data should be analyzed with greater attention while discussing small differences in the studies of 1H MRS.
Peripatellar fat pads are intracapsular extrasynovial adipose cushions that accommodate the changing shape and volume of articular spaces during movement. Variations in bone geometry, passive and active stabilization mechanisms and/or functional demands may lead to peripatellar fat pad abnormalities. While peripatellar fat pads may be affected a variety of conditions such as synovial inflammation, tumor and fibrosis, a mechanical origin should also be considered. Commonly, the clinical term “impingement” is used synonymously in the radiological literature to refer to three distinct entities of structural peripatellar fat pad abnormalities: superolateral the infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa fat pad) edema, suprapatellar fat pad edema, and prepatellar fat pad edema, implying a mechanical origin of these conditions. The aim of this pictorial review is to describe the normal anatomy of the extensor mechanism of the knee, and discuss the relation of patellofemoral maltracking to the above-mentioned peripatellar fat pad conditions based on current evidence.
Purpose: Seromucinous borderline tumor (SMBT) is a newly categorized ovarian tumor in the 2014 revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification. SMBT is similar to serous borderline tumor (SBT) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reflecting their pathological findings. This study was conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of MRI findings and quantitative values for differentiating SMBT from SBT.
Methods: This retrospective study examined 23 lesions (20 patients) from SMBT and 26 lesions (22 patients) from SBT. The following quantitative values were evaluated using receiver-operating characteristics analysis: overall and solid portion sizes, intracystic fluid signal intensity (SI) ratio compared with skeletal muscle on T1weighted image (T1WI) and T2weighted image (T2WI), contrast enhancement (CE) ratio, and mean and minimum apparent diffusion coefficient values of the solid portion. Two radiologists evaluated the prevalence of MRI finding characteristics of SMBT and SBT. The SI of the intracystic fluid on T1WI and T2WI and the association with endometriosis were evaluated visually.
Results: The CE ratio was significantly higher in SBT (P = 0.007). It achieved the highest area under the curve (AUC) (0.739). The fluid SI ratio on T1WI was higher in SMBT (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.676). Exophytic growth of the solid portion was observed only in SBT (P = 0.011). Intracystic fluid SI of SMBT was higher on T1WI and lower on T2WI in visual evaluation (P = 0.008 and 0.007, respectively). Findings suggesting endometriosis were observed more frequently in SMBT patients (P = 0.019).
Conclusion: Higher CE ratio of the solid portion and exophytic growth were findings suggesting SBT. Higher intracystic fluid SI on T1WI and lower SI on T2WI suggested SMBT. MRI findings suggesting endometriosis favored the diagnosis of SMBT.
Purpose: Circumventricular organs (CVOs) lack a blood brain barrier and are also called “brain windows”. Among CVOs, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) is an osmotic regulator involved in the release of vasopressin. In a previous study of healthy subjects, it was reported that contrast enhancement in the OVLT can be recognized in only 34% of 3 Tesla thin slice contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the leakage of gadolinium contrast from the OVLT in healthy subjects using heavily T2-weighted three dimensional-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) (HF) imaging.
Methods: Eight healthy male subjects were included in this study. A standard dose (0.1 mmol/kg) of gadoteridol was intravenously administered. magnetic resonance cisternography (MRC) and HF were obtained before and 0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 h after the injection. Enhancement of the OVLT including the surrounding cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) was measured by manually drawing a rectangular region of interest (ROI) centered on the OVLT. The ROI was copied to the HF image and the signal intensity was measured. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) was obtained by dividing the signal intensity value of the OVLT ROI by that of the midbrain.
Results: The differences between the mean SIR at pre-contrast and those at 0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 h were significant (P < 0.05). The mean SIR at 0.5 h was higher than those at all other time points (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Using HF imaging, enhancement around the OVLT was observed in all subjects at 0.5 h after intravenous administration of single dose gadoteridol.
Purpose: Implantation of carmustine wafers (Gliadel) in vivo is accompanied by characteristic serial changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), such as transient hyperintensity of the wafers on T1-weighted images (T1WIs) and considerable gas accumulation in surgical resection cavities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intrinsic imaging changes to carmustine wafers in vitro.
Methods: Three phantoms simulating a surgical resection cavity were constructed. Each contained either a carmustine wafer fixed with oxidized regenerated cellulose and fibrin sealant, an unfixed carmustine wafer, or a fixed polyethylene control disk, immersed in phosphate-buffered saline. Image acquisition of the phantoms was performed on MRI and CT until 182 days after construction. The radiological appearances of the object in each phantom were assessed by visual evaluation and quantification of the region of interest. The volume of gas around the objects at 24 h after constructing the phantoms was also measured.
Results: The carmustine wafers showed low signal intensities on T1WIs and T2-weighted images (T2WIs), and high densities on CT images at 24 h. The signal intensities and CT densities gradually approximated those of saline over a period of months. However, the carmustine wafers never showed hyperintensity on T1WIs in vitro. The fixed carmustine wafer showed slower radiological changes, as compared to the unfixed wafer. The gas volume around the fixed carmustine wafer was greater than that around the fixed control disk.
Conclusion: Changes to the carmustine wafers probably reflected penetration of fluid inside and degradation of the hydrophobic matrix. Reported transient hyperintensity of wafers on T1WIs in vivo is regarded as the result of biological reactions, whereas the initial production of gas is considered as an intrinsic characteristic of wafers.
This article is based on a presentation at the meeting of the Japanese Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine in September 2016. The purpose is to review the technical developments which have contributed to the current status of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and to indicate related emerging areas of study. Technical developments include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics-based innovations as well as improvements in MRI engineering. These have collectively addressed not only early issues of timing and venous suppression but more importantly have led to an improvement in spatiotemporal resolution of CE-MRA of more than two orders of magnitude compared to early results. This has allowed CE-MRA to be successfully performed in virtually all vascular territories of the body. Contemporary technical areas of study include improvements in implementation of high rate acceleration, extension of high performance first-pass CE-MRA across multiple imaging stations, expanded use of compressive sensing techniques, integration of Dixon-based fat suppression into CE-MRA sequences, and application of CE-MRA sequences to dynamic-contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging.
We assessed labeling region selectivity on time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) with pencil beam pulse (PB Time-SLIP) for the use of visualizing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics. We compared the selectivity of labeling to the third and fourth ventricles between PB Time-SLIP and conventional Time-SLIP (cTime-SLIP) in eight volunteers and one patient using a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PB Time-SLIP provided more selective labeling in CSF than cTime-SLIP, particularly in complex anatomical regions.
Purpose: Mural nodules and papillary projections can be seen in benign ovarian endometriosis (OE) and malignant transformation of OE (endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer [EAOC]), which can pose a challenging diagnostic dilemma to clinicians. We identify the preoperative imaging characteristics helpful to the differential diagnosis between benign OE with mural nodules and EAOC.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 82 patients who were diagnosed pathologically to have OE with mural nodules (n = 42) and malignant transformations of these tumors (n = 40) at the Nara Medical University Hospital from January 2008 to January 2015. All patients were assessed with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgery. Patient demographics, and clinical and pathologic features were analyzed to detect the significant differences between the two groups.
Results: Histological examinations of resected OE tissue specimens revealed that a majority (78.6%) of the mural nodular lesions were retracted blood clots. We found that the patients with malignant mural nodules, when compared to those with benign nodules, were older, had larger cyst diameters and larger mural nodule sizes, and were more likely to exhibit a taller than wider lesion. They were also more likely to present with various signal intensities on T1-weighted images (T1WI), high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI), a lower proportion of shading on T2WI, and were more likely to show an anterior location of the cyst. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, “Height” (>1.5 cm) and “Height-Width ratio (HWR)” (>0.9) of mural nodules, maximum diameter of the cyst (>7.9 cm), and age at diagnosis (>43 years) were independent predictors to distinguish EAOC from OE with mural nodules.
Conclusion: The “Height” and “HWR” of the mural nodules in the cyst may yield a novel potential diagnostic factor for differentiating EAOC from benign OE with mural nodules.
Purpose: 1H-MRS is a non-invasive technique used to assess the metabolic activity of brain tumors. The technique is useful for the preoperative prediction of tumor grade, which is important for treatment planning and accurate prognosis. We used 1H-MRS to study the lactate peak, which appears in various conditions, including hyperglycemia, ischemia, and hypoxia and lipid peak, which is associated with necrotic cells. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the frequency and significance of lactate and lipid peaks in relation to brain tumor grade.
Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients diagnosed with neuroepithelial tumors of Grades I (3 cases), II (11 cases), III (15 cases), and IV (26 cases) were enrolled. Biopsies were excluded. Single voxel (echo time [TE] = 144 ms) point resolved 1H-MRS spectroscopy sequences were retrospectively analyzed. An inverted doublet peak at 1.3 ppm was defined as lactate, a negative and positive peak was defined as combined lactate and lipid, and a clear upward peak was defined as lipid.
Results: Lactate peaks were detected in all grades of brain tumors and were least common in Grade II tumors (9.1%). The frequency of combined lactate-lipid peaks was 0% (Grades I and II), 8.3% (Grade III), and 44% (Grade IV). Grade IV tumors were significantly different to the other grades. There were three cases with a lipid peak. All were glioblastoma.
Conclusions: The presence of a lac peak may be useful to largely rule out the Grade II tumors, and allow the subsequent differentiation of Grade I tumors from Grade III or IV tumors by conventional imaging. The presence of a lipid peak may be associated with Grade IV tumors.
Purpose: To compare the abilities of three intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging approximation methods to discriminate the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs).
Methods: Fifty-eight patients (60 HCCs) underwent IVIM imaging with 11 b-values (0–1000 s/mm2). Slow (D) and fast diffusion coefficients (D*) and the perfusion fraction (f) were calculated for the HCCs using the mean signal intensities in regions of interest drawn by two radiologists. Three approximation methods were used. First, all three parameters were obtained simultaneously using non-linear fitting (method A). Second, D was obtained using linear fitting (b = 500 and 1000), followed by non-linear fitting for D* and f (method B). Third, D was obtained by linear fitting, f was obtained using the regression line intersection and signals at b = 0, and non-linear fitting was used for D* (method C). A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to reveal the abilities of these methods to distinguish poorly-differentiated from well-to-moderately-differentiated HCCs. Inter-reader agreements were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).
Results: The measurements of D, D*, and f in methods B and C (Az-value, 0.658–0.881) had better discrimination abilities than did those in method A (Az-value, 0.527–0.607). The ICCs of D and f were good to excellent (0.639–0.835) with all methods. The ICCs of D* were moderate with methods B (0.580) and C (0.463) and good with method A (0.705).
Conclusion: The IVIM parameters may vary depending on the fitting methods, and therefore, further technical refinement may be needed.
We measured the changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics after compression of the bilateral jugular veins using phase contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). PC-MRI was performed in 10 healthy male volunteers using a 3T clinical scanner with a two-dimensional gradient echo sequence. We successfully measured the changes in CSF flow velocity using PC-MRI with and without compression of the bilateral jugular veins. The relative velocity range decreased by about 30% when the bilateral jugular veins were compressed.
Purpose: We investigated the feasibility of single breath hold unenhanced coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using multi-shot gradient echo planar imaging (MSG-EPI) on a 3T-scanner.
Methods: Fourteen volunteers underwent single breath hold coronary MRA with a MSG-EPI and free-breathing turbo field echo (TFE) coronary MRA at 3T. The acquisition time, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and the contrast of the sequences were compared with the paired t-test. Readers evaluated the image contrast, noise, sharpness, artifacts, and the overall image quality.
Results: The acquisition time was 88.1% shorter for MSG-EPI than TFE (24.7 ± 2.5 vs 206.4 ± 23.1 sec, P < 0.01). The SNR was significantly higher on MSG-EPI than TFE scans (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the contrast on MSG-EPI and TFE scans (1.8 ± 0.3 vs 1.9 ± 0.3, P = 0.24). There was no significant difference in image contrast, image sharpness, and overall image quality between two scan techniques. The score of image noise and artifact were significantly higher on MSG-EPI than TFE scans (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The single breath hold MSG-EPI sequence is a promising technique for shortening the scan time and for preserving the image quality of unenhanced whole heart coronary MRA on a 3T scanner.
Purpose: To elucidate differences between glioblastoma (GBM) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) with magnetic resonance (MR) image-based texture features.
Methods: This was an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective study. Consecutive, pathologically proven, initially treated 44 patients with GBM and 16 patients with PCNSL were enrolled. We calculated a total of 67 image texture features on the largest contrast-enhancing lesion in each patient on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Texture analyses included first-order features (histogram) and second-order features calculated with gray level co-occurrence matrix, gray level run length matrix (GLRLM), gray level size zone matrix, and multiple gray level size zone matrix. All texture features were measured by two neuroradiologists independently and the intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Reproducible features with the intraclass correlation coefficients of greater than 0.7 were used for hierarchical clustering between the cases and the features along with unpaired t statistics-based comparisons under the control of false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to find the predominant features in evaluating the differences between GBM and PCNSL.
Results: Twenty-one out of the 67 features satisfied the acceptable intraclass correlation coefficient and the FDR constraints. PCA suggested first-order entropy, median, GLRLM-based run length non-uniformity, and run percentage as the distinguished features. Compared with PCNSL, run percentage and median were significantly lower, and entropy and run length non-uniformity were significantly higher in GBM.
Conclusions: Among MR image-based textures, first-order entropy, median, GLRLM-based run length non-uniformity, and run percentage are considered to enhance differences between GBM and PCNSL.
Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using oxygen and glucose as stimulating agents in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of rabbit liver and analyze the impacts by blood flow.
Methods: Pure oxygen inhalation, intravenous injection and oral administration of glucose were given to 11 New Zealand white rabbits to compare the differences of liver T2*, aortic flow (AF), portal vein flow (PVF), aortic area (AA) and portal vein area (PVA) before and at 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min after administrations. AF and PVF were acquired by two dimensional (2D) Phase Contrast MR (2D-PCMR). The impacts of AF and PVF upon BOLD fMRI were analyzed.
Results: AF and PVF declined at 5 min after oxygen inhalation and were significantly different from baseline, then reverted to baseline. No significant difference was observed in liver T2*, AA and PVA before and after oxygen inhalation. AF, PVF, AA and PVA showed no significant difference before and after glucose intravenous injection, while liver T2* increased gradually with significant difference. AF and liver T2* were significantly different before and after glucose oral administration and increased gradually, AA was significantly different before and after glucose administration at 10 min and 20 min. PVF and PVA started to be different from baseline at 10 min. Greatest variation of T2* (19.6%) was induced by glucose oral administration after 30 min.
Conclusion: Rabbit liver T2* increasing by glucose intravenous injection is possibly associated with glycogen synthesis, provides the possibility to evaluate liver function. Glucose oral administration demonstrated an optimal comparative effect of raising T2*, however, resulted from the superposition of increased glycogen synthesis and blood flow. Inhalation of pure oxygen didn’t alter the rabbit liver T2*, which may possibly result from an offset between the increased concentration of oxyhemoglobin and decreased blood flow.
Purpose: We routinely obtain the endolymphatic hydrops (EH) image using heavily T2-weighted three dimensional-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (hT2w-3D-FLAIR) imaging at 4 hours after intravenous administration of a single-dose of gadolinium-based contrast media (IV-SD-GBCM). While repeating the examination, we speculated that the contrast enhancement of the perivascular space (PVS) in the basal ganglia might be related to the degree of EH. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the endolymphatic volume ratio (%ELvolume) and the signal intensity of the PVS (SI-PVS).
Materials and Methods: In 20 patients with a suspicion of EH, a heavily T2-weighted 3D-turbo spin echo sequence for magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography (MRC) and an hT2w-3D-FLAIR as a positive perilymph image (PPI) were obtained at 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM. The %ELvolume of the cochlea and the vestibule were measured on the previously reported HYDROPS2-Mi2 image. The PVS in the basal ganglia was segmented on MRC using a region-growing method. The PVS regions were copied and pasted onto the PPI, and the SI-PVS was measured. The larger value of the right and the left ears was employed as the %ELvolume, and the weighted average of both sides was employed as the SI-PVS. The correlation between the %ELvolume and the SI-PVS was evaluated.
Result: There was a strong negative linear correlation between the %ELvolume of the cochlea and the SI-PVS (r = −0.743, P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between the %ELvolume of the vestibule and the SI-PVS (r = −0.267, P = 0.256).
Conclusion: There was a strong negative correlation between the cochlear %ELvolume and the SI-PVS. Contrast enhancement of PVS might be a biomarker of EH.
The chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect on an egg white (EW) suspension was investigated for optimization of magnetization transfer (MT) power (B1,rms) and pH dependency with the addition of lactic acid. Applying a higher MT pulse, B1,rms, Z-spectrum shows higher asymmetry and the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR)asym signal increases to around 1–3.5 ppm, indicating a higher CEST effect. Amide proton transfer (APT) at 3.5 ppm shows a signal elevation in MTRasym with the application of higher B1,rms power and high pH. In addition, the hydroxyl proton signal in MTRasym increases as pH is reduced by lactic acid. In Z-spectrum of B1,rms at 1.0 μT and 2.0 μT, the dependence on CEST effect of amide proton and hydroxyl proton could be observed by using an EW suspension phantom. The CEST MT power was optimized on the EW suspension phantom with pH dependency and further confirmed on volunteers. In addition, APT imaging at 3.5 ppm using B1,rms at 1.0 μT performed on two human brains with different pathophysiological conditions indicated appropriate ATP effect.
We proposed a simple technique for reduction of cardiac-related motion artifacts on contrast-enhanced images in the breast by using cylindrical regional-suppression technique (CREST) that can directly suppress the heart signals. The purpose of this study was to select the optimal scan parameters and to evaluate the feasibility in the breast. We demonstrated that the optimized CREST could dramatically reduce the cardiac-related flow artifacts without any penalty to the acquisition time, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-enhanced lesion-to-parenchyma contrast.
The sequence for concurrently depicting engulfed vessels and a well-enhanced tumor in once-off scanning has never been reported for preoperative magnetic resonance imaging for brain tumor resection. Multimodal fusion techniques have been recently developed, but the risks of misregistration still remain. Here a case is reported where contrast-enhanced three-dimensional phase contrast sequence concurrently depicted an engulfed vessel and metastatic brain tumor in once-off scanning and related technical aspects are discussed.
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a composite radiofrequency (RF) pulse on saturation recovery (SR) myocardial T1 mapping using a 3T magnetic resonance (MR) system.
Materials and Methods: Phantom and in vivo studies were performed with a clinical 3T MR scanner. Accuracy and reproducibility of the SR T1 mapping using conventional and composite RF pulses were first compared in phantom experiments. An in vivo study was performed of 10 healthy volunteers who were imaged with conventional and composite RF pulse methods twice each. In vivo reproducibility of myocardial T1 value and the inter-segment variability were assessed.
Results: The phantom study revealed significant differences in the mean T1 values between the two methods, and the reproducibility for the composite RF pulse was significantly smaller than that for the conventional RF pulse. For both methods, the correlations of the reference and measured T1 values were excellent (r2 = 0.97 and 0.98 for conventional and composite RF pulses, respectively). The in vivo study showed that the mean T1 value for composite RF pulse was slightly lower than that for conventional RF pulse, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.06). The inter-segment variability for the composite RF pulse was significantly smaller than that for conventional RF pulse (P < 0.01). Inter-scan correlations of T1 measurements of the first and second scans were highly and weakly correlated to composite RF pulses (r = 0.83 and 0.29, respectively).
Conclusion: SR T1 mapping using composite RF pulse provides accurate quantification of T1 values and can lessen measurement variability and enable reproducible T1 measurements.
Purpose: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of histogram analysis of data from a combination of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI for quantitative differentiation between central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL) and high-grade glioma (HGG), with the aim of identifying useful perfusion parameters as objective radiological markers for differentiating between them.
Methods: Eight lesions with CNSLs and 15 with HGGs who underwent MRI examination, including DCE and DSC-MRI, were enrolled in our retrospective study. DSC-MRI provides a corrected cerebral blood volume (cCBV), and DCE-MRI provides a volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) for transfer from plasma to the extravascular extracellular space. Ktrans and cCBV were measured from a round region-of-interest in the slice of maximum size on the contrast-enhanced lesion. The differences in t values between CNSL and HGG for determining the most appropriate percentile of Ktrans and cCBV were investigated. The differences in Ktrans, cCBV, and Ktrans/cCBV between CNSL and HGG were investigated using histogram analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of Ktrans, cCBV, and Ktrans/cCBV ratio was performed.
Results: The 30th percentile (C30) in Ktrans and 80th percentile (C80) in cCBV were the most appropriate percentiles for distinguishing between CNSL and HGG from the differences in t values. CNSL showed significantly lower C80 cCBV, significantly higher C30 Ktrans, and significantly higher C30 Ktrans/C80 cCBV than those of HGG. In ROC analysis, C30 Ktrans/C80 cCBV had the best discriminative value for differentiating between CNSL and HGG as compared to C30 Ktrans or C80 cCBV.
Conclusion: The combination of Ktrans by DCE-MRI and cCBV by DSC-MRI was found to reveal the characteristics of vascularity and permeability of a lesion more precisely than either Ktrans or cCBV alone. Histogram analysis of these vascular microenvironments enabled quantitative differentiation between CNSL and HGG.
Purpose: To compare the diagnostic ability of reduced field-of-view (FOV) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging in evaluating the depth of myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial cancer.
Methods: Three tesla (3T) MR images including T2-weighted imaging, reduced FOV DW imaging and 3D DCE MR imaging in sagittal and oblique axial (short axis) planes in 25 women with surgically proven endometrial cancer were retrospectively evaluated. The depth of myometrial invasion (stage S: < 50% vs stage D: ≥ 50%) on MR imaging was correlated with surgical pathology results.
Results: The 25 endometrial cancers included 16 stage S and 9 stage D tumors. The depth of myometrial invasion could be accurately evaluated in 68% of the cases for T2-weighted imaging, 92% for 3D DCE MR imaging, and 96% for reduced FOV DW imaging. In two patients with coexisting adenomyosis, both T2-weighted imaging and 3D DCE MR imaging failed to reveal the deep myometrial invasion, and reduced FOV DW imaging clearly demonstrated the tumor margin in the cases. Combination of reduced FOV DW imaging reading together with T2-weighted imaging improved the assessment of myometrial invasion with a diagnostic accuracy of up to 100%.
Conclusions: Addition of reduced FOV DW imaging may improve the staging accuracy of MR imaging for endometrial cancer in assessing the depth of myometrial invasion. Especially, reduced FOV DW imaging has an advantage in assessing the depth of myometrial invasion for patients with coexisting adenomyosis. Reduced FOV DW imaging can be an alternative to 3D DCE MR imaging in evaluating myometrial invasion of endometrial cancer without the use of contrast medium.
Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic power of hybrid intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) model parameters in pretreatment for the prediction of future distant metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 49 HNSCC patients who underwent curative chemoradiation therapy. Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) acquired by single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging with 12 b-values (0–2000) was performed in all patients before any treatment. We calculated the IVIM-DKI parameters and the conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the region of interest (ROI) placed on the primary lesion. The presence of future distant metastasis was determined by histological findings or clinical follow-up.
Results: A univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the patients with distant metastasis and those without in slow diffusion coefficient (D) and kurtosis value (K). Highest diagnostic accuracy was obtained by the D value. In addition, a multivariate analysis revealed that the D value was an independent predictor of future distant metastasis.
Conclusion: The D and K values obtained by this hybrid IVIM-DKI model can be one of the diagnostic tools for the prediction of future distant metastasis in HNSCC patients.
Objectives: Wilson’s disease (WD) is characterized with the accumulation of copper in the liver and brain. The objective of this study is to quantitatively measure the susceptibility changes of basal ganglia and brain stem of pediatric patients with neurological WD using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in comparison to healthy controls.
Methods: Eleven patients with neurological WD (mean age 15 ± 3.3 years, range 10–22 years) and 14 age-matched controls were prospectively recruited. Both groups were scanned on a 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner. In addition to T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, a three dimensional (3D) multi-echo spoiled gradient echo (GRE) sequence was acquired and QSM images were derived offline. The quantitative measurement of susceptibility of corpus striatum, thalamus of each hemisphere, midbrain, and pons were assessed with the region of interest analysis on the QSM images. The susceptibility values for the patient and control groups were compared using two-sample t-test.
Results: One patient with WD had T1 shortening in the bilateral globus pallidus. Another one had hyperintensity in the bilateral putamen, caudate nuclei, and substantia nigra on T2-weighted images. The rest of the patients with WD and all subjects of the control group had no signal abnormalities on conventional MR images. The susceptibility measures of right side of globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, midbrain, and entire pons were significantly different in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: QSM method exhibits increased susceptibility differences of basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with WD that have neurologic impairment even if no signal alteration is detected on T1- and T2-weighted MR images.
We report the assessment of Dentate Nuclei (DN) R1 (1/T1) and R2* (1/R2*) values in a patient with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis, exposed to 22 standard (0.1 mmol/kg) doses of gadobutrol, who underwent eight relaxometric magnetic resonance (MR) measurements within two years. DN R1 did not significantly increase nor correlated with cumulative gadobutrol administration, even after a total dose of 130 ml. Likewise, DN R2* relaxometry remained unchanged. In conclusion, massive gadobutrol exposure did not induce significant DN relaxometry changes.
Background and Purpose: To assess the clinical feasibility of time-resolved three-dimensional phase contrast (4D Flow) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the ophthalmic artery (OphA) flow in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (ICS).
Materials and Methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with unilateral ICS were recruited. 4D Flow MRI and acetazolamide-stress brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed. The flow direction on the affected-side OphA was categorized into native flow (anterograde or unclear) and non-native flow (retrograde flow) based on 4D Flow MRI. In the affected-side middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory, the ratio of rest cerebral blood flow to normal control (RCBFMCA) and cerebral vascular reserve (CVRMCA) were calculated from SPECT dataset. High-risk patients were defined based on the previous large cohort study (RCBFMCA < 80% and CVRMCA < 10%).
Results: Eleven patients had native OphA flow (4 anterograde, 7 unclear) and the remaining 10 had non-native OphA flow. RCBFMCA and CVRMCA each were significantly lower in non-native flow group (84.9 ± 18.9% vs. 69.8 ± 7.3%, P < 0.05; 36.4 ± 20.6% vs. 17.0 ± 15.0%, P < 0.05). Four patients in the non-native flow group and none in the native flow group were confirmed as high-risk (Sensitivity/Specificity, 1.00/0.65).
Conclusion: The six min standard 4D Flow MRI assessment of OphA in patients with ICS can predict intracranial hemodynamic impairment.
Spiral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were developed for a 9.4T vertical standard bore (54 mm) superconducting magnet using unshielded and self-shielded gradient coils. Clear spiral images with 64-shot scan were obtained with the self-shielded gradient coil, but severe shading artifacts were observed for the spiral-scan images acquired with the unshielded gradient coil. This shading artifact was successfully corrected with a phase-correction technique using reference scans that we developed based on eddy current field measurements. We therefore concluded that spiral imaging sequences can be installed even for unshielded gradient coils if phase corrections are performed using the reference scans.
Hepatic schwannoma is a very rare hepatic tumor, usually appearing as a hypervascular solid mass with or without various degrees of cystic changes; however, to the best of our knowledge, only the two cases of hepatic schwannoma showing a multi-cystic appearance have previously been reported. We report herein a benign hepatic schwannoma presenting as an unusually large multi-cystic mass. The gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging features are described with the histopathologic correlation and briefly review the literature. The solid-like areas showing the early/progressive enhancement, reflecting remnants of the Antoni A/B portion, during the dynamic phases may be helpful imaging features for the differentiation of other multi-cystic hepatic lesions, but pathological evaluation remains essential for diagnosis.