Purpose: Implantation of carmustine wafers (Gliadel) in vivo is accompanied by characteristic serial changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), such as transient hyperintensity of the wafers on T1-weighted images (T1WIs) and considerable gas accumulation in surgical resection cavities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intrinsic imaging changes to carmustine wafers in vitro.
Methods: Three phantoms simulating a surgical resection cavity were constructed. Each contained either a carmustine wafer fixed with oxidized regenerated cellulose and fibrin sealant, an unfixed carmustine wafer, or a fixed polyethylene control disk, immersed in phosphate-buffered saline. Image acquisition of the phantoms was performed on MRI and CT until 182 days after construction. The radiological appearances of the object in each phantom were assessed by visual evaluation and quantification of the region of interest. The volume of gas around the objects at 24 h after constructing the phantoms was also measured.
Results: The carmustine wafers showed low signal intensities on T1WIs and T2-weighted images (T2WIs), and high densities on CT images at 24 h. The signal intensities and CT densities gradually approximated those of saline over a period of months. However, the carmustine wafers never showed hyperintensity on T1WIs in vitro. The fixed carmustine wafer showed slower radiological changes, as compared to the unfixed wafer. The gas volume around the fixed carmustine wafer was greater than that around the fixed control disk.
Conclusion: Changes to the carmustine wafers probably reflected penetration of fluid inside and degradation of the hydrophobic matrix. Reported transient hyperintensity of wafers on T1WIs in vivo is regarded as the result of biological reactions, whereas the initial production of gas is considered as an intrinsic characteristic of wafers.
This article is based on a presentation at the meeting of the Japanese Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine in September 2016. The purpose is to review the technical developments which have contributed to the current status of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and to indicate related emerging areas of study. Technical developments include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) physics-based innovations as well as improvements in MRI engineering. These have collectively addressed not only early issues of timing and venous suppression but more importantly have led to an improvement in spatiotemporal resolution of CE-MRA of more than two orders of magnitude compared to early results. This has allowed CE-MRA to be successfully performed in virtually all vascular territories of the body. Contemporary technical areas of study include improvements in implementation of high rate acceleration, extension of high performance first-pass CE-MRA across multiple imaging stations, expanded use of compressive sensing techniques, integration of Dixon-based fat suppression into CE-MRA sequences, and application of CE-MRA sequences to dynamic-contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging.
We assessed labeling region selectivity on time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) with pencil beam pulse (PB Time-SLIP) for the use of visualizing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics. We compared the selectivity of labeling to the third and fourth ventricles between PB Time-SLIP and conventional Time-SLIP (cTime-SLIP) in eight volunteers and one patient using a 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PB Time-SLIP provided more selective labeling in CSF than cTime-SLIP, particularly in complex anatomical regions.
Purpose: Mural nodules and papillary projections can be seen in benign ovarian endometriosis (OE) and malignant transformation of OE (endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer [EAOC]), which can pose a challenging diagnostic dilemma to clinicians. We identify the preoperative imaging characteristics helpful to the differential diagnosis between benign OE with mural nodules and EAOC.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 82 patients who were diagnosed pathologically to have OE with mural nodules (n = 42) and malignant transformations of these tumors (n = 40) at the Nara Medical University Hospital from January 2008 to January 2015. All patients were assessed with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgery. Patient demographics, and clinical and pathologic features were analyzed to detect the significant differences between the two groups.
Results: Histological examinations of resected OE tissue specimens revealed that a majority (78.6%) of the mural nodular lesions were retracted blood clots. We found that the patients with malignant mural nodules, when compared to those with benign nodules, were older, had larger cyst diameters and larger mural nodule sizes, and were more likely to exhibit a taller than wider lesion. They were also more likely to present with various signal intensities on T1-weighted images (T1WI), high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images (T2WI), a lower proportion of shading on T2WI, and were more likely to show an anterior location of the cyst. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, “Height” (>1.5 cm) and “Height-Width ratio (HWR)” (>0.9) of mural nodules, maximum diameter of the cyst (>7.9 cm), and age at diagnosis (>43 years) were independent predictors to distinguish EAOC from OE with mural nodules.
Conclusion: The “Height” and “HWR” of the mural nodules in the cyst may yield a novel potential diagnostic factor for differentiating EAOC from benign OE with mural nodules.
Purpose: 1H-MRS is a non-invasive technique used to assess the metabolic activity of brain tumors. The technique is useful for the preoperative prediction of tumor grade, which is important for treatment planning and accurate prognosis. We used 1H-MRS to study the lactate peak, which appears in various conditions, including hyperglycemia, ischemia, and hypoxia and lipid peak, which is associated with necrotic cells. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the frequency and significance of lactate and lipid peaks in relation to brain tumor grade.
Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients diagnosed with neuroepithelial tumors of Grades I (3 cases), II (11 cases), III (15 cases), and IV (26 cases) were enrolled. Biopsies were excluded. Single voxel (echo time [TE] = 144 ms) point resolved 1H-MRS spectroscopy sequences were retrospectively analyzed. An inverted doublet peak at 1.3 ppm was defined as lactate, a negative and positive peak was defined as combined lactate and lipid, and a clear upward peak was defined as lipid.
Results: Lactate peaks were detected in all grades of brain tumors and were least common in Grade II tumors (9.1%). The frequency of combined lactate-lipid peaks was 0% (Grades I and II), 8.3% (Grade III), and 44% (Grade IV). Grade IV tumors were significantly different to the other grades. There were three cases with a lipid peak. All were glioblastoma.
Conclusions: The presence of a lac peak may be useful to largely rule out the Grade II tumors, and allow the subsequent differentiation of Grade I tumors from Grade III or IV tumors by conventional imaging. The presence of a lipid peak may be associated with Grade IV tumors.
Purpose: To compare the abilities of three intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging approximation methods to discriminate the histological grade of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs).
Methods: Fifty-eight patients (60 HCCs) underwent IVIM imaging with 11 b-values (0–1000 s/mm2). Slow (D) and fast diffusion coefficients (D*) and the perfusion fraction (f) were calculated for the HCCs using the mean signal intensities in regions of interest drawn by two radiologists. Three approximation methods were used. First, all three parameters were obtained simultaneously using non-linear fitting (method A). Second, D was obtained using linear fitting (b = 500 and 1000), followed by non-linear fitting for D* and f (method B). Third, D was obtained by linear fitting, f was obtained using the regression line intersection and signals at b = 0, and non-linear fitting was used for D* (method C). A receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to reveal the abilities of these methods to distinguish poorly-differentiated from well-to-moderately-differentiated HCCs. Inter-reader agreements were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).
Results: The measurements of D, D*, and f in methods B and C (Az-value, 0.658–0.881) had better discrimination abilities than did those in method A (Az-value, 0.527–0.607). The ICCs of D and f were good to excellent (0.639–0.835) with all methods. The ICCs of D* were moderate with methods B (0.580) and C (0.463) and good with method A (0.705).
Conclusion: The IVIM parameters may vary depending on the fitting methods, and therefore, further technical refinement may be needed.
We measured the changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics after compression of the bilateral jugular veins using phase contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). PC-MRI was performed in 10 healthy male volunteers using a 3T clinical scanner with a two-dimensional gradient echo sequence. We successfully measured the changes in CSF flow velocity using PC-MRI with and without compression of the bilateral jugular veins. The relative velocity range decreased by about 30% when the bilateral jugular veins were compressed.
Purpose: We investigated the feasibility of single breath hold unenhanced coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) using multi-shot gradient echo planar imaging (MSG-EPI) on a 3T-scanner.
Methods: Fourteen volunteers underwent single breath hold coronary MRA with a MSG-EPI and free-breathing turbo field echo (TFE) coronary MRA at 3T. The acquisition time, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and the contrast of the sequences were compared with the paired t-test. Readers evaluated the image contrast, noise, sharpness, artifacts, and the overall image quality.
Results: The acquisition time was 88.1% shorter for MSG-EPI than TFE (24.7 ± 2.5 vs 206.4 ± 23.1 sec, P < 0.01). The SNR was significantly higher on MSG-EPI than TFE scans (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the contrast on MSG-EPI and TFE scans (1.8 ± 0.3 vs 1.9 ± 0.3, P = 0.24). There was no significant difference in image contrast, image sharpness, and overall image quality between two scan techniques. The score of image noise and artifact were significantly higher on MSG-EPI than TFE scans (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: The single breath hold MSG-EPI sequence is a promising technique for shortening the scan time and for preserving the image quality of unenhanced whole heart coronary MRA on a 3T scanner.
Purpose: To elucidate differences between glioblastoma (GBM) and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) with magnetic resonance (MR) image-based texture features.
Methods: This was an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective study. Consecutive, pathologically proven, initially treated 44 patients with GBM and 16 patients with PCNSL were enrolled. We calculated a total of 67 image texture features on the largest contrast-enhancing lesion in each patient on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Texture analyses included first-order features (histogram) and second-order features calculated with gray level co-occurrence matrix, gray level run length matrix (GLRLM), gray level size zone matrix, and multiple gray level size zone matrix. All texture features were measured by two neuroradiologists independently and the intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Reproducible features with the intraclass correlation coefficients of greater than 0.7 were used for hierarchical clustering between the cases and the features along with unpaired t statistics-based comparisons under the control of false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to find the predominant features in evaluating the differences between GBM and PCNSL.
Results: Twenty-one out of the 67 features satisfied the acceptable intraclass correlation coefficient and the FDR constraints. PCA suggested first-order entropy, median, GLRLM-based run length non-uniformity, and run percentage as the distinguished features. Compared with PCNSL, run percentage and median were significantly lower, and entropy and run length non-uniformity were significantly higher in GBM.
Conclusions: Among MR image-based textures, first-order entropy, median, GLRLM-based run length non-uniformity, and run percentage are considered to enhance differences between GBM and PCNSL.
Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using oxygen and glucose as stimulating agents in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of rabbit liver and analyze the impacts by blood flow.
Methods: Pure oxygen inhalation, intravenous injection and oral administration of glucose were given to 11 New Zealand white rabbits to compare the differences of liver T2*, aortic flow (AF), portal vein flow (PVF), aortic area (AA) and portal vein area (PVA) before and at 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min after administrations. AF and PVF were acquired by two dimensional (2D) Phase Contrast MR (2D-PCMR). The impacts of AF and PVF upon BOLD fMRI were analyzed.
Results: AF and PVF declined at 5 min after oxygen inhalation and were significantly different from baseline, then reverted to baseline. No significant difference was observed in liver T2*, AA and PVA before and after oxygen inhalation. AF, PVF, AA and PVA showed no significant difference before and after glucose intravenous injection, while liver T2* increased gradually with significant difference. AF and liver T2* were significantly different before and after glucose oral administration and increased gradually, AA was significantly different before and after glucose administration at 10 min and 20 min. PVF and PVA started to be different from baseline at 10 min. Greatest variation of T2* (19.6%) was induced by glucose oral administration after 30 min.
Conclusion: Rabbit liver T2* increasing by glucose intravenous injection is possibly associated with glycogen synthesis, provides the possibility to evaluate liver function. Glucose oral administration demonstrated an optimal comparative effect of raising T2*, however, resulted from the superposition of increased glycogen synthesis and blood flow. Inhalation of pure oxygen didn’t alter the rabbit liver T2*, which may possibly result from an offset between the increased concentration of oxyhemoglobin and decreased blood flow.
Purpose: We routinely obtain the endolymphatic hydrops (EH) image using heavily T2-weighted three dimensional-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (hT2w-3D-FLAIR) imaging at 4 hours after intravenous administration of a single-dose of gadolinium-based contrast media (IV-SD-GBCM). While repeating the examination, we speculated that the contrast enhancement of the perivascular space (PVS) in the basal ganglia might be related to the degree of EH. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the endolymphatic volume ratio (%ELvolume) and the signal intensity of the PVS (SI-PVS).
Materials and Methods: In 20 patients with a suspicion of EH, a heavily T2-weighted 3D-turbo spin echo sequence for magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography (MRC) and an hT2w-3D-FLAIR as a positive perilymph image (PPI) were obtained at 4 hours after IV-SD-GBCM. The %ELvolume of the cochlea and the vestibule were measured on the previously reported HYDROPS2-Mi2 image. The PVS in the basal ganglia was segmented on MRC using a region-growing method. The PVS regions were copied and pasted onto the PPI, and the SI-PVS was measured. The larger value of the right and the left ears was employed as the %ELvolume, and the weighted average of both sides was employed as the SI-PVS. The correlation between the %ELvolume and the SI-PVS was evaluated.
Result: There was a strong negative linear correlation between the %ELvolume of the cochlea and the SI-PVS (r = −0.743, P < 0.001); however, there was no significant correlation between the %ELvolume of the vestibule and the SI-PVS (r = −0.267, P = 0.256).
Conclusion: There was a strong negative correlation between the cochlear %ELvolume and the SI-PVS. Contrast enhancement of PVS might be a biomarker of EH.
The chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effect on an egg white (EW) suspension was investigated for optimization of magnetization transfer (MT) power (B1,rms) and pH dependency with the addition of lactic acid. Applying a higher MT pulse, B1,rms, Z-spectrum shows higher asymmetry and the magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR)asym signal increases to around 1–3.5 ppm, indicating a higher CEST effect. Amide proton transfer (APT) at 3.5 ppm shows a signal elevation in MTRasym with the application of higher B1,rms power and high pH. In addition, the hydroxyl proton signal in MTRasym increases as pH is reduced by lactic acid. In Z-spectrum of B1,rms at 1.0 μT and 2.0 μT, the dependence on CEST effect of amide proton and hydroxyl proton could be observed by using an EW suspension phantom. The CEST MT power was optimized on the EW suspension phantom with pH dependency and further confirmed on volunteers. In addition, APT imaging at 3.5 ppm using B1,rms at 1.0 μT performed on two human brains with different pathophysiological conditions indicated appropriate ATP effect.
We proposed a simple technique for reduction of cardiac-related motion artifacts on contrast-enhanced images in the breast by using cylindrical regional-suppression technique (CREST) that can directly suppress the heart signals. The purpose of this study was to select the optimal scan parameters and to evaluate the feasibility in the breast. We demonstrated that the optimized CREST could dramatically reduce the cardiac-related flow artifacts without any penalty to the acquisition time, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-enhanced lesion-to-parenchyma contrast.
The sequence for concurrently depicting engulfed vessels and a well-enhanced tumor in once-off scanning has never been reported for preoperative magnetic resonance imaging for brain tumor resection. Multimodal fusion techniques have been recently developed, but the risks of misregistration still remain. Here a case is reported where contrast-enhanced three-dimensional phase contrast sequence concurrently depicted an engulfed vessel and metastatic brain tumor in once-off scanning and related technical aspects are discussed.
To improve the imaging protocol for the evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops after intravenous administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent, we modified our previously reported hybrid of reversed image of positive endolymph signal and native image of positive perilymph signal (HYDROPS) method. Although the scan time of the new protocol was half that of the previous one, there were no significant differences between two protocols in the mean contrast noise ratio between the endolymph and perilymph and the area ratio of the endolymph size values in nine patients.
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a composite radiofrequency (RF) pulse on saturation recovery (SR) myocardial T1 mapping using a 3T magnetic resonance (MR) system.
Materials and Methods: Phantom and in vivo studies were performed with a clinical 3T MR scanner. Accuracy and reproducibility of the SR T1 mapping using conventional and composite RF pulses were first compared in phantom experiments. An in vivo study was performed of 10 healthy volunteers who were imaged with conventional and composite RF pulse methods twice each. In vivo reproducibility of myocardial T1 value and the inter-segment variability were assessed.
Results: The phantom study revealed significant differences in the mean T1 values between the two methods, and the reproducibility for the composite RF pulse was significantly smaller than that for the conventional RF pulse. For both methods, the correlations of the reference and measured T1 values were excellent (r2 = 0.97 and 0.98 for conventional and composite RF pulses, respectively). The in vivo study showed that the mean T1 value for composite RF pulse was slightly lower than that for conventional RF pulse, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.06). The inter-segment variability for the composite RF pulse was significantly smaller than that for conventional RF pulse (P < 0.01). Inter-scan correlations of T1 measurements of the first and second scans were highly and weakly correlated to composite RF pulses (r = 0.83 and 0.29, respectively).
Conclusion: SR T1 mapping using composite RF pulse provides accurate quantification of T1 values and can lessen measurement variability and enable reproducible T1 measurements.
Purpose: We evaluated the diagnostic performance of histogram analysis of data from a combination of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI for quantitative differentiation between central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL) and high-grade glioma (HGG), with the aim of identifying useful perfusion parameters as objective radiological markers for differentiating between them.
Methods: Eight lesions with CNSLs and 15 with HGGs who underwent MRI examination, including DCE and DSC-MRI, were enrolled in our retrospective study. DSC-MRI provides a corrected cerebral blood volume (cCBV), and DCE-MRI provides a volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) for transfer from plasma to the extravascular extracellular space. Ktrans and cCBV were measured from a round region-of-interest in the slice of maximum size on the contrast-enhanced lesion. The differences in t values between CNSL and HGG for determining the most appropriate percentile of Ktrans and cCBV were investigated. The differences in Ktrans, cCBV, and Ktrans/cCBV between CNSL and HGG were investigated using histogram analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of Ktrans, cCBV, and Ktrans/cCBV ratio was performed.
Results: The 30th percentile (C30) in Ktrans and 80th percentile (C80) in cCBV were the most appropriate percentiles for distinguishing between CNSL and HGG from the differences in t values. CNSL showed significantly lower C80 cCBV, significantly higher C30 Ktrans, and significantly higher C30 Ktrans/C80 cCBV than those of HGG. In ROC analysis, C30 Ktrans/C80 cCBV had the best discriminative value for differentiating between CNSL and HGG as compared to C30 Ktrans or C80 cCBV.
Conclusion: The combination of Ktrans by DCE-MRI and cCBV by DSC-MRI was found to reveal the characteristics of vascularity and permeability of a lesion more precisely than either Ktrans or cCBV alone. Histogram analysis of these vascular microenvironments enabled quantitative differentiation between CNSL and HGG.
Purpose: To compare the diagnostic ability of reduced field-of-view (FOV) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging in evaluating the depth of myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial cancer.
Methods: Three tesla (3T) MR images including T2-weighted imaging, reduced FOV DW imaging and 3D DCE MR imaging in sagittal and oblique axial (short axis) planes in 25 women with surgically proven endometrial cancer were retrospectively evaluated. The depth of myometrial invasion (stage S: < 50% vs stage D: ≥ 50%) on MR imaging was correlated with surgical pathology results.
Results: The 25 endometrial cancers included 16 stage S and 9 stage D tumors. The depth of myometrial invasion could be accurately evaluated in 68% of the cases for T2-weighted imaging, 92% for 3D DCE MR imaging, and 96% for reduced FOV DW imaging. In two patients with coexisting adenomyosis, both T2-weighted imaging and 3D DCE MR imaging failed to reveal the deep myometrial invasion, and reduced FOV DW imaging clearly demonstrated the tumor margin in the cases. Combination of reduced FOV DW imaging reading together with T2-weighted imaging improved the assessment of myometrial invasion with a diagnostic accuracy of up to 100%.
Conclusions: Addition of reduced FOV DW imaging may improve the staging accuracy of MR imaging for endometrial cancer in assessing the depth of myometrial invasion. Especially, reduced FOV DW imaging has an advantage in assessing the depth of myometrial invasion for patients with coexisting adenomyosis. Reduced FOV DW imaging can be an alternative to 3D DCE MR imaging in evaluating myometrial invasion of endometrial cancer without the use of contrast medium.
Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic power of hybrid intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) model parameters in pretreatment for the prediction of future distant metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients.
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 49 HNSCC patients who underwent curative chemoradiation therapy. Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) acquired by single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging with 12 b-values (0–2000) was performed in all patients before any treatment. We calculated the IVIM-DKI parameters and the conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the region of interest (ROI) placed on the primary lesion. The presence of future distant metastasis was determined by histological findings or clinical follow-up.
Results: A univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the patients with distant metastasis and those without in slow diffusion coefficient (D) and kurtosis value (K). Highest diagnostic accuracy was obtained by the D value. In addition, a multivariate analysis revealed that the D value was an independent predictor of future distant metastasis.
Conclusion: The D and K values obtained by this hybrid IVIM-DKI model can be one of the diagnostic tools for the prediction of future distant metastasis in HNSCC patients.
Objectives: Wilson’s disease (WD) is characterized with the accumulation of copper in the liver and brain. The objective of this study is to quantitatively measure the susceptibility changes of basal ganglia and brain stem of pediatric patients with neurological WD using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in comparison to healthy controls.
Methods: Eleven patients with neurological WD (mean age 15 ± 3.3 years, range 10–22 years) and 14 age-matched controls were prospectively recruited. Both groups were scanned on a 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner. In addition to T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images, a three dimensional (3D) multi-echo spoiled gradient echo (GRE) sequence was acquired and QSM images were derived offline. The quantitative measurement of susceptibility of corpus striatum, thalamus of each hemisphere, midbrain, and pons were assessed with the region of interest analysis on the QSM images. The susceptibility values for the patient and control groups were compared using two-sample t-test.
Results: One patient with WD had T1 shortening in the bilateral globus pallidus. Another one had hyperintensity in the bilateral putamen, caudate nuclei, and substantia nigra on T2-weighted images. The rest of the patients with WD and all subjects of the control group had no signal abnormalities on conventional MR images. The susceptibility measures of right side of globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, midbrain, and entire pons were significantly different in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: QSM method exhibits increased susceptibility differences of basal ganglia and brain stem in patients with WD that have neurologic impairment even if no signal alteration is detected on T1- and T2-weighted MR images.
We report the assessment of Dentate Nuclei (DN) R1 (1/T1) and R2* (1/R2*) values in a patient with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis, exposed to 22 standard (0.1 mmol/kg) doses of gadobutrol, who underwent eight relaxometric magnetic resonance (MR) measurements within two years. DN R1 did not significantly increase nor correlated with cumulative gadobutrol administration, even after a total dose of 130 ml. Likewise, DN R2* relaxometry remained unchanged. In conclusion, massive gadobutrol exposure did not induce significant DN relaxometry changes.
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for noninvasively estimating the magnetic susceptibility of biological tissue. Several methods for QSM have been proposed. One of these methods can estimate susceptibility with high accuracy in tissues whose contrast is consistent between magnitude images and susceptibility maps, such as deep gray-matter nuclei. However, the susceptibility of small veins is underestimated and not well depicted by using the above approach, because the contrast of small veins is inconsistent between a magnitude image and a susceptibility map. In order to improve the estimation accuracy and visibility of small veins without streaking artifacts, a method with multiple dipole-inversion combination with k-space segmentation (MUDICK) has been proposed. In the proposed method, k-space was divided into three domains (low-frequency, magic-angle, and high-frequency). The k-space data in low-frequency and magic-angle domains were obtained by L1-norm regularization using structural information of a pre-estimated susceptibility map. The k-space data in high-frequency domain were obtained from the pre-estimated susceptibility map in order to preserve small-vein contrasts. Using numerical simulation and human brain study at 3 Tesla, streaking artifacts and small-vein susceptibility were compared between MUDICK and conventional methods (MEDI and TKD). The numerical simulation and human brain study showed that MUDICK and MEDI had no severe streaking artifacts and MUDICK showed higher contrast and accuracy of susceptibility in small-veins compared to MEDI. These results suggest that MUDICK can improve the accuracy and visibility of susceptibility in small-veins without severe streaking artifacts.
Background and Purpose: To assess the clinical feasibility of time-resolved three-dimensional phase contrast (4D Flow) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the ophthalmic artery (OphA) flow in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis (ICS).
Materials and Methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients with unilateral ICS were recruited. 4D Flow MRI and acetazolamide-stress brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed. The flow direction on the affected-side OphA was categorized into native flow (anterograde or unclear) and non-native flow (retrograde flow) based on 4D Flow MRI. In the affected-side middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory, the ratio of rest cerebral blood flow to normal control (RCBFMCA) and cerebral vascular reserve (CVRMCA) were calculated from SPECT dataset. High-risk patients were defined based on the previous large cohort study (RCBFMCA < 80% and CVRMCA < 10%).
Results: Eleven patients had native OphA flow (4 anterograde, 7 unclear) and the remaining 10 had non-native OphA flow. RCBFMCA and CVRMCA each were significantly lower in non-native flow group (84.9 ± 18.9% vs. 69.8 ± 7.3%, P < 0.05; 36.4 ± 20.6% vs. 17.0 ± 15.0%, P < 0.05). Four patients in the non-native flow group and none in the native flow group were confirmed as high-risk (Sensitivity/Specificity, 1.00/0.65).
Conclusion: The six min standard 4D Flow MRI assessment of OphA in patients with ICS can predict intracranial hemodynamic impairment.
Spiral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were developed for a 9.4T vertical standard bore (54 mm) superconducting magnet using unshielded and self-shielded gradient coils. Clear spiral images with 64-shot scan were obtained with the self-shielded gradient coil, but severe shading artifacts were observed for the spiral-scan images acquired with the unshielded gradient coil. This shading artifact was successfully corrected with a phase-correction technique using reference scans that we developed based on eddy current field measurements. We therefore concluded that spiral imaging sequences can be installed even for unshielded gradient coils if phase corrections are performed using the reference scans.
Purpose: To develop a new shimming calculation method, which can calculate iron piece placements rapidly to make the magnetic field homogeneous at intended homogeneity and then to make the shimming working time short.
Materials and Methods: The shimming calculation yields magnetic moment (MM) distribution, which is calculated by the truncated singular value decomposition (SVD) from the measured magnetic field. The MM distribution is described by a superposition of eigenmodes obtained by SVD of a response matrix from the moment distributions to magnetic fields at the field of view (FOV). The homogeneity is regulated by a truncation number of the superposed eigenmodes. The magnetic moments are converted into iron volumes with the assumption of saturated magnetization and the iron pieces are placed according to the calculation results. Since the SVD calculation can be done in advance, the computational time at the shimming site is short.
Results: Trial applications on a 0.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnet were done using the new shimming calculation method, which was proved to work well. However, since the iron piece volumes had tolerances, the work was repeated until enough homogeneity was obtained. As a result, an intended homogeneity of 8.9 ppm (peak-to-peak) on 40 cm diameter spherical surface was successfully obtained from measured homogeneity of 543 ppm with short computational and working time.
Conclusion: The test shimming work showed that the developed shimming calculation method with truncated SVD regularization is applicable to the shimming work on the MRI magnets.
Purpose: Although the neonatal and infantile brain typically shows sequential T1 shortening according to gestational age as a result of myelination, several structures do not follow this rule. We evaluated the relationship between the signal intensity of various structures in the neonatal and infantile brain on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and either postnatal or gestational age.
Materials and Methods: We examined magnetic resonance images from 120 newborns and infants without any abnormalities in the central nervous system. Written informed consent was obtained from all parents and the institutional review board approved the study. Gestational age at examination ranged from 35 weeks, 3 days to 46 weeks, 6 days, and postnatal age ranged from 7 days to 127 days. Signal intensity on T1WI was evaluated on a scale from Grade 1 (indistinguishable from surrounding structures) to Grade 4 (higher than cortex and close to fat). We evaluated relationships between the T1 signal grades of various structures in the neonatal brain and postnatal or gestational age using Spearman’s correlation analysis.
Results: Significant positive correlations were identified between T1 signal grade and gestational age in the pyramidal tract (P < 0.001). Conversely, significant negative correlations were evident between T1 signal grade and postnatal age (P < 0.001), in structures including the stria medullaris thalami, fornix cerebellar vermis, dentate nucleus and anterior pituitary gland.
Conclusion: Significant negative correlations exist between signal intensity on T1WI and postnatal age in some structures of the neonatal and infantile brain. Some mechanisms other than myelination might play roles in the course of signal appearance.
Hepatic schwannoma is a very rare hepatic tumor, usually appearing as a hypervascular solid mass with or without various degrees of cystic changes; however, to the best of our knowledge, only the two cases of hepatic schwannoma showing a multi-cystic appearance have previously been reported. We report herein a benign hepatic schwannoma presenting as an unusually large multi-cystic mass. The gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging features are described with the histopathologic correlation and briefly review the literature. The solid-like areas showing the early/progressive enhancement, reflecting remnants of the Antoni A/B portion, during the dynamic phases may be helpful imaging features for the differentiation of other multi-cystic hepatic lesions, but pathological evaluation remains essential for diagnosis.
Purpose: To determine whether high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) acquisitions improve the repeatability of liver proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measurements using confounder-corrected chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (CSE-MRI).
Materials and Methods: Eleven fat-water phantoms were scanned with 8 different protocols with varying SNR. After repositioning the phantoms, the same scans were repeated to evaluate the test-retest repeatability. Next, an in vivo study was performed with 20 volunteers and 28 patients scheduled for liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two CSE-MRI protocols with standard- and high-SNR were repeated to assess test-retest repeatability. MR spectroscopy (MRS)-based PDFF was acquired as a standard of reference. The standard deviation (SD) of the difference (Δ) of PDFF measured in the two repeated scans was defined to ascertain repeatability. The correlation between PDFF of CSE-MRI and MRS was calculated to assess accuracy. The SD of Δ and correlation coefficients of the two protocols (standard- and high-SNR) were compared using F-test and t-test, respectively. Two reconstruction algorithms (complex-based and magnitude-based) were used for both the phantom and in vivo experiments.
Results: The phantom study demonstrated that higher SNR improved the repeatability for both complex- and magnitude-based reconstruction. Similarly, the in vivo study demonstrated that the repeatability of the high-SNR protocol (SD of Δ = 0.53 for complex- and = 0.85 for magnitude-based fit) was significantly higher than using the standard-SNR protocol (0.77 for complex, P < 0.001; and 0.94 for magnitude-based fit, P = 0.003). No significant difference was observed in the accuracy between standard- and high-SNR protocols.
Conclusion: Higher SNR improves the repeatability of fat quantification using confounder-corrected CSE-MRI.
Purpose: Our aims were to determine the feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in the detection of bone marrow edema (BME) and explore the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) alterations in patients with osteitis pubis (OP).
Materials and Methods: Fourty two consecutive patients clinically suspected to have athletic pubalgia and 31 control subjects were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent diagnostic focused magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DWI at b values of 0 and 600 s/mm2. Two radiologists reviewed the images for the presence of active OP. The presence of subchondral BME and contrast enhancement were considered to indicate active OP. ADC values were measured from public bodies of both groups. DWI results were correlated with routine MRI findings. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were formed. Cut-off values for ADC, sensitivity and specificity values were measured.
Results: 36/42 (85%) of the cases had BME/enhancement on routine MRIs and identified as active OP. ADC measurements of the patients were greater than the controls (P < 0.05). For the optimal cut-off values DWI showed sensitivity and specificity values of 97.3%, and 90.3%, for the right, and 97.1%, and 96.7% for the left side, respectively (Area under the curve 0.965 and 0.973). Intra-and inter-rater reliability for readers were substantial-perfect for all sessions.
Conclusion: DWI is fast, accurate, and highly reproducible technique for the detection of BME in patients with active OP. It allows distinct bone marrow contrast without the use of gadolinium contrast, increases visual perception of active lesions, gives objective information by quantifying the diffusion coefficients, thus increase diagnostic confidence. We suggest the use of DWI as a cost-effective adjunctive tool for the diagnosis of active OP particularly in early cases and inconclusive diagnostic MRI. Future studies are necessary to determine the utility of DWI to evaluate severity of the disease and treatment response before returning athletes to play.
Introduction: We aim to elucidate the effect of spatial resolution of three-dimensional cine phase contrast magnetic resonance (3D cine PC MR) imaging on the accuracy of the blood flow analysis, and examine the optimal setting for spatial resolution using flow phantoms.
Materials and Methods: The flow phantom has five types of acrylic pipes that represent human blood vessels (inner diameters: 15, 12, 9, 6, and 3 mm). The pipes were fixed with 1% agarose containing 0.025 mol/L gadolinium contrast agent. A blood-mimicking fluid with human blood property values was circulated through the pipes at a steady flow. Magnetic resonance (MR) images (three-directional phase images with speed information and magnitude images for information of shape) were acquired using the 3-Tesla MR system and receiving coil. Temporal changes in spatially-averaged velocity and maximum velocity were calculated using hemodynamic analysis software. We calculated the error rates of the flow velocities based on the volume flow rates measured with a flowmeter and examined measurement accuracy.
Results: When the acrylic pipe was the size of the thoracicoabdominal or cervical artery and the ratio of pixel size for the pipe was set at 30% or lower, spatially-averaged velocity measurements were highly accurate. When the pixel size ratio was set at 10% or lower, maximum velocity could be measured with high accuracy. It was difficult to accurately measure maximum velocity of the 3-mm pipe, which was the size of an intracranial major artery, but the error for spatially-averaged velocity was 20% or less.
Conclusions: Flow velocity measurement accuracy of 3D cine PC MR imaging for pipes with inner sizes equivalent to vessels in the cervical and thoracicoabdominal arteries is good. The flow velocity accuracy for the pipe with a 3-mm-diameter that is equivalent to major intracranial arteries is poor for maximum velocity, but it is relatively good for spatially-averaged velocity.
Introduction: To investigate the biodistribution and retention properties of the new super paramagnetic iron oxide (new SPIO: mean hydrodynamic diameter, 100 nm) nanoparticles, which have concentrated polymer brushes in the outer shell and are difficult for phagocytes to absorb, and to compare the new SPIO with clinically approved SPIO (Resovist: mean hydrodynamic diameter, 57 nm).
Materials and Methods: 16 male C57BL/6N mice were divided in two groups according to the administered SPIO (n = 8 for each group; intravenous injection does, 0.1 ml). In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed before and one hour, one day, one week and four weeks after SPIO administration by two dimensional-the fast low angle shot (2D-FLASH) sequence at 11.7T. Ex vivo high-resolution images of fixed organs were also obtained by (2D-FLASH). After the ex vivo MRI, organs were sectioned and evaluated histologically to confirm the biodistribution of each particle precisely.
Results: The new SPIO was taken up in small amounts by liver Kupffer cells and showed a unique in vivo MRI contrast pattern in the kidneys, where the signal intensity decreased substantially in the boundaries between cortex and outer medulla and between outer and inner medulla. We found many round dark spots in the cortex by ex vivo MRI in both groups. Resovist could be detected almost in the cortex. The shapes of the dark spots were similar to those observed in the new SPIO group. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that Resovist and the new SPIO accumulated in different cells of glomeruli, that is, endothelial and mesangial cells, respectively.
Conclusion: The new SPIO was taken up in small amounts by liver tissue and showed a unique MRI contrast pattern in the kidney. The SPIO were found in the mesangial cells of renal corpuscles. Our results indicate that the new SPIO may be potentially be used as a new contrast agent for evaluation of kidney function as well as immunune function.
Purpose: Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with various clinical presentations. Mutation of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene is considered to be a cause of this autosomal dominant disorder. The purpose of this study was to report magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings in patients with HDLS and asymptomatic carriers and to clarify the use of MRS in this disease.
Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, institutional review board-approved study, we included four consecutive patients, genetically diagnosed with HDLS, and two asymptomatic carriers after acquiring informed consent. We performed single-voxel MRS of the left centrum semiovale on a 3-T clinical scanner. We also included a sex-matched normal dataset. We quantified N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine, choline-containing compounds (Cho), glutamine, glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (Ins), glutathione, lactate (Lac), and gamma-amino butyric acid using LCModel. We performed statistical analysis, and P value <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: In HDLS cases, MRS revealed decreased NAA and Glu concentrations, which probably reflected neuronal damage and/or loss, and a subsequent reduction of neurotransmitters. A patient with HDLS also had increased Cho and Ins concentrations, indicating gliosis, and increased Cho concentration was also observed in an asymptomatic carrier. This suggests that metabolic changes had already occurred in an asymptomatic state.
Conclusion: We demonstrated changes in metabolite concentrations not only in patients with HDLS but also in asymptomatic CSF1R mutation carriers. Our study indicates that MRS is a potentially useful tool for the analysis of metabolic and pathophysiological findings of HDLS, even during the early stages of disease.
Purpose: The medial medullary lamina (MML) separates the medial globus pallidus (GPm) from the lateral. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in appearance of MML related to age using the phase difference-enhanced imaging (PADRE) and to determine whether PADRE can depict the MML in the patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Materials and Methods: We enrolled 20 patients with PD and 50 normal control subjects (NC). First, for the visualization of the MML in the NC, we compared the PADRE, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)-like images and T2 weighted imaging (WI) by using multiple comparison. The grading methods are as follows: grade 1; MML was not delineated, grade 2; less than half of MML was delineated, grade 3; more than half of MML was delineated and grade 4; whole MML was clearly delineated. We determined grade 3 and 4 as good depiction, delineating the GPm. Then, we evaluated patients with PD using the same method.
Results: In NC, the delineation of MML was good in 84% of cases on PADRE, but only 34% of cases showed a good depiction on SWI-like images (average grading score 3.31 vs 2.11, P < 0.05). No MML was delineated in all cases on T2 WI. Although younger subjects tended to show whole MML clearly, a part of MML tends to be obscured with age on PADRE. In patients with PD the depiction of MML on PADRE was also good in 90% of cases.
Conclusion: The PADRE technique facilitates the depiction of the MML within globus pallidus (GP) on a broad range of age NC and patients with PD and it is superior to SWI-like images and T2 WI.
Sweep imaging with Fourier transform (SWIFT) method has been developed to image tissues with very short T2 values, such as cortical bone. The purpose of this study was to measure the T1 value of the rat cortical bone. It was approximately 120 ms on 7.04T. This result could thus be useful for studying bony tissue according to the SWIFT method in the future.
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