Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
Online ISSN : 1880-2206
Print ISSN : 1347-3182
ISSN-L : 1347-3182
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-39 of 39 articles from this issue
  • Masafumi Takafuji, Masaki Ishida, Satoshi Nakamura, Kei Nakata, Haruno ...
    Article ID: mp.2023-0018
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: September 28, 2023

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to compare global coronary flow reserve (CFR) between patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and risk-matched controls using cardiac MRI (CMR), and to evaluate the relationship between global CFR and CMR left ventricular (LV) parameters.

    Methods: Twenty-six patients with DCM and 26 risk-matched controls who underwent comprehensive CMR examination, including stress-rest coronary sinus flow measurement by phase contrast (PC) cine CMR were retrospectively studied. LV peak global longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strains (GLS, GRS, and GCS) were determined by feature tracking.

    Results: Patients with DCM had significantly lower global CFR compared with the risk-matched controls (2.87 ± 0.86 vs. 4.03 ± 1.47, P = 0.001). Among the parameters, univariate linear regression analyses revealed significant correlation of global CFR with LV end-diastolic volume index (r = –0.396, P = 0.045), LV mass index (r = –0.461, P = 0.018), GLS (r = –0.558, P = 0.003), and GRS (r = 0.392, P = 0.047). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed GLS as the only independent predictor of global CFR (standardized β = –0.558, P = 0.003).

    Conclusion: Global CFR was significantly impaired in patients with idiopathic DCM and independently associated with LV GLS, suggesting that microvascular dysfunction may contribute to deterioration of LV function in patients with idiopathic DCM.

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  • Ryoichi Kose, Katsumi Kose, Koji Fujimoto, Tomohisa Okada, Daiki Tamad ...
    Article ID: tn.2023-0063
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: September 09, 2023

    Recent high-performance gradient coils are fabricated mainly at the expense of spatial linearity. In this study, we measured the spatial nonlinearity of the magnetic field generated by the gradient coils of two MRI systems with high-performance gradient coils. The nonlinearity of the gradient fields was measured using 3D gradient echo sequences and a spherical phantom with a built-in lattice structure. The spatial variation of the gradient field was approximated to the 3rd order polynomials. The coefficients of the polynomials were calculated using the steepest descent method. The geometric distortion of the acquired 3D MR images was corrected using the polynomials and compared with the 3D images corrected using the harmonic functions provided by the MRI venders. As a result, it was found that the nonlinearity correction formulae provided by the vendors were insufficient and needed to be verified or corrected using a geometric phantom such as used in this study.

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  • Zuofeng Zheng, Yawen Liu, Hongxia Yin, Pengling Ren, Tingting Zhang, J ...
    Article ID: tn.2022-0161
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: September 08, 2023

    Synthetic MRI is being increasingly used for the quantification of brain longitudinal relaxation time (T1), transverse relaxation time (T2), and proton density (PD) values. However, the effect of fast imaging protocols on these quantitative values has not been fully estimated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fast scan parameters on T1, T2, and PD measured with a multi-dynamic multi-echo (MDME) sequence of normal brain at 3.0T. Thirty-four volunteers were scanned using 3 MDME sequences with different scan times (named Fast, 2 min, 29 sec; Routine, 4 min, 07 sec; and Research, 7 min, 46 sec, respectively). The measured T1, T2, and PD in 18 volumes of interest (VOI) of brain were compared between the 3 sequences using rank sum test, t test, coefficients of variation (CVs) analysis, correlation analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. We found that even though T1, T2, and PD were significantly different between the 3 sequences in most of the brain regions, the intersequence CVs were relatively low and linear correlation were high. Bland-Altman plots showed that most of the values fall within the 95% prediction limits. We concluded that fast imaging protocols of MDME sequence used in our study can potentially be used for quantitative evaluation of brain tissues. Since changing scan parameters can affect the measured T1, T2, and PD values, it is necessary to use consistent scan parameter for comparing or following up cases quantitatively.

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  • Yuta Endo, Sanae Takahashi, Haruna Shibo, Makoto Amanuma, Kuninori Kob ...
    Article ID: mp.2023-0029
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: September 04, 2023

    Purpose: Polarity-corrected inversion time preparation (PCTIP), a myocardial T1 mapping technique, is expected to reduce measurement underestimation in the modified Look-Locker inversion recover method. However, measurement precision is reduced, especially for heart rate variability. We devised an analysis using a recurrence formula to overcome this problem and showed that it improved the measurement accuracy, especially at high heart rates. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of this analysis on the accuracy and precision of T1 measurements for irregular heart rate variability.

    Methods: A PCTIP scan using a 3T MRI scanner was performed in phantom experiment. We generated the simulated R-waves required for electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated acquisition using a signal generator set to 30 combinations. T1 map was generated using the signal train of the PCTIP images by nonlinear curve fitting using conventional and recurrence formulas. Accuracy against reference T1 and precision of heart rate variability were evaluated. To evaluate the fitting accuracy of both analyses, the relative fitting error was calculated.

    Results: For the longer T1, the fitting error was larger than the short T1, with the conventional analysis showing 10.1±2.0%. The recurrence formula analysis showed a small fitting error less than 1%, which was consistent for all heart rate variability patterns. In the conventional analysis, the accuracy, especially for longer T1, showed a large underestimation of the measurements and poor linearity. However, in the recurrence formula analysis, the accuracy improved at a long T1, and linearity also improved. The Bland–Altman plot showed that it varied greatly depending on the heart rate variability pattern for the longer T1 in the conventional analysis, whereas the recurrence formula analysis suppressed this variation.

    Conclusion: T1 analysis of PCTIP using the recurrence formula analysis achieved accurate and precise T1 measurements, even for irregular heart rate variability.

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  • Daisuke Takenaka, Yoshiyuki Ozawa, Kaori Yamamoto, Maiko Shinohara, Ma ...
    Subject Area: MAJOR PAPERS
    Article ID: mp.2023-0068
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: September 01, 2023

    Purpose: Deep learning reconstruction (DLR) has been recommended as useful for improving image quality. Moreover, compressed sensing (CS) or DLR has been proposed as useful for improving temporal resolution and image quality on MR sequences in different body fields. However, there have been no reports regarding the utility of DLR for image quality and T-factor assessment improvements on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), short inversion time (TI) inversion recovery (STIR) imaging, and unenhanced- and contrast-enhanced (CE) 3D fast spoiled gradient echo (GRE) imaging with and without CS in comparison with thin-section multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of DLR for improving image quality and the appropriate sequence for T-category assessment for NSCLC patients.

    Methods: As subjects for this study, 213 pathologically diagnosed NSCLC patients who underwent thin-section MDCT and MR imaging as well as T-factor diagnosis were retrospectively enrolled. SNR of each tumor was calculated and compared by paired t-test for each sequence with and without DLR. T-factor for each patient was assessed with thin-section MDCT and all MR sequences, and the accuracy for T-factor diagnosis was compared among all sequences and thin-section CT by means of McNemar’s test.

    Results: SNRs of T2WI, STIR imaging, unenhanced thin-section Quick 3D imaging, and CE-thin-section Quick 3D imaging with DLR were significantly higher than SNRs of those without DLR (P < 0.05). Diagnostic accuracy of STIR imaging and CE-thick- or thin-section Quick 3D imaging was significantly higher than that of thin-section CT, T2WI, and unenhanced thick- or thin-section Quick 3D imaging (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: DLR is thus considered useful for image quality improvement on MR imaging. STIR imaging and CE-Quick 3D imaging with or without CS were validated as appropriate MR sequences for T-factor evaluation in NSCLC patients.

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  • Barış Genç, Kerim Aslan, Ali Özçağlayan, Lütfi İncesu
    Article ID: mp.2023-0054
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: August 01, 2023

    Purpose: Glioblastoma patients develop recurrence in the opposite hemisphere far from the primary tumor site even after complete resection. This is one of the main reasons for short disease survival. Our aim in this study is to detect microstructural changes in the contralateral hemisphere of glioblastoma patients using different diffusion models with the fully automated tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method.

    Methods: Fourteen right-sided and eleven left-sided glioblastoma patients without any treatment and eighteen age- and gender-matched controls were included in the study. Multi-shell diffusion weighted images were created with a 3T MRI device. After various preprocessing steps, images of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), axial kurtosis (AK), mean kurtosis (MK), radial kurtosis (RK), intracellular volume fraction (ICVF), orientation dispersion index (ODI), and isotropic water fraction (ISO) were obtained. TBSS was used to compare diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging, and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging parameters of right- and left-sided glioblastoma patients with the control group for the contralateral hemisphere.

    Results: Both right-sided and left-sided glioblastoma patients have shown an increase in MD and ODI in the contralateral hemisphere. While right-sided glioblastoma patients showed an increase in RD, AD, and ISO in a more limited area in the contralateral hemisphere, left-sided glioblastoma patients showed an increase in MK and AK. FA, ICVF, and RK did not show any difference in both groups.

    Conclusion: There are microstructural changes in the contralateral hemisphere in glioblastoma patients, and these changes differ between right-sided and left-sided glioblastoma patients.

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  • Naoto Fujita, Suguru Yokosawa, Toru Shirai, Yasuhiko Terada
    Article ID: mp.2023-0031
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: July 28, 2023
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: Deep neural networks (DNNs) for MRI reconstruction often require large datasets for training. Still, in clinical settings, the domains of datasets are diverse, and how robust DNNs are to domain differences between training and testing datasets has been an open question. Here, we numerically and clinically evaluate the generalization of the reconstruction networks across various domains under clinically practical conditions and provide practical guidance on what points to consider when selecting models for clinical application.

    Methods: We compare the reconstruction performance between four network models: U-Net, the deep cascade of convolutional neural networks (DC-CNNs), Hybrid Cascade, and variational network (VarNet). We used the public multicoil dataset fastMRI for training and testing and performed a single-domain test, where the domains of the dataset used for training and testing were the same, and cross-domain tests, where the source and target domains were different. We conducted a single-domain test (Experiment 1) and cross-domain tests (Experiments 2–4), focusing on six factors (the number of images, sampling pattern, acceleration factor, noise level, contrast, and anatomical structure) both numerically and clinically.

    Results: U-Net had lower performance than the three model-based networks and was less robust to domain shifts between training and testing datasets. VarNet had the highest performance and robustness among the three model-based networks, followed by Hybrid Cascade and DC-CNN. Especially, VarNet showed high performance even with a limited number of training images (200 images/10 cases). U-Net was more robust to domain shifts concerning noise level than the other model-based networks. Hybrid Cascade showed slightly better performance and robustness than DC-CNN, except for robustness to noise-level domain shifts. The results of the clinical evaluations generally agreed with the results of the quantitative metrics.

    Conclusion: In this study, we numerically and clinically evaluated the robustness of the publicly available networks using the multicoil data. Therefore, this study provided practical guidance for clinical applications.

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  • Hideki Hoshi, Reiji Sugita, Yoshio Machida
    Article ID: tn.2022-0132
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: June 21, 2023

    The usefulness of a highly targeted pencil beam (PB) label was compared with the commonly used slab label for direct visualization of pancreaticobiliary reflux using the time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (time-SLIP) technique. Signal profiles of flow phantom images obtained with a 1.5T MRI were analyzed. Both labels had similar labeling capabilities, but the edge characteristics of the PB label were blunt. Next, sixty-eight patients were classified into two groups according to the angle of the pancreaticobiliary ducts, and the displacement of the pancreatic ducts in respiratory fluctuation was measured. The results were approximately 7 mm in both groups. The blunt edge characteristics of the PB label suggest that it is robust to respiratory fluctuations. The overall labeling ability of the PB is comparable to that of the slab. In the larger angle of pancreaticobiliary ducts, the PB label may be able to label the pancreatic duct more selectively.

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  • Naoya Kinota, Hiroyuki Kameda, Bai Xiawei, Takaaki Fujii, Daisuke Kato ...
    Article ID: mp.2023-0023
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: May 30, 2023

    Purpose: To investigate whether deep cervical lymph node (DCLN) ligation alters intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer dynamics and outflow using a rat model with intrathecal dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI.

    Methods: Six bilateral DCLN-ligated and six sham-operated rats were subjected to DCE MRI with Gd-BTDO3A, and dynamic T1-weighted images were acquired. ROIs were collected from the CSF at the C1 level (CSF_C1), CSF between the olfactory bulbs (CSF_OB), CSF at the pituitary recess (CSF_PitR), and CSF at the pineal recess (CSF_PinR), upper nasal turbinate (UNT), olfactory bulbs, cerebrum, and the jugular region. Time-intensity curves were evaluated, and the maximum slope, peak timing, peak signal ratio, and elimination half-life for the four CSF ROIs and UNT were calculated and compared.

    Results: Delayed tracer arrival in the rostral CSF space and the nasal cavity with tracer retention in the ventral CSF space were observed in the ligation group. The maximum slopes were smaller in the ligation group at UNT (sham: 0.075 ± 0.0061, ligation: 0.044 ± 0.0086/min, P = 0.011). A significant difference was not detected in peak timings. The peak signal ratio values were lower in the ligation group at UNT (sham: 2.12 ± 0.19, ligation: 1.72 ± 0.11, P = 0.011). The elimination half-life was delayed in the ligation group at CSF_C1 (sham: 30.5 ± 2.70, ligation: 44.4 ± 12.6 min, P = 0.043), CSF_OB (sham: 30.2 ± 2.67, ligation: 44.8 ± 7.47 min, P = 0.021), and CSF_PitR (sham: 30.2 ± 2.49, ligation: 41.3 ± 7.57 min, P = 0.021).

    Conclusion: The DCLN ligation in rats blocked CSF outflow into the nasal cavity and caused CSF retention.

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  • Aika Okazawa, Mami Iima, Masako Kataoka, Ryosuke Okumura, Sachiko Taka ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0056
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: May 26, 2023

    Purpose: We aimed to investigate the diagnostic feasibility of an adjusted diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lexicon using multiple b values to assess breast lesions according to DWI-based breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS).

    Methods: This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved prospective study included 127 patients with suspected breast cancer. Breast MRI was performed using a 3T scanner. Breast DW images were acquired using five b-values of 0, 200, 800, 1000, and 1500 s/mm2 (5b-value DWI) on 3T MRI. Two readers independently assessed lesion characteristics and normal breast tissue using DWI alone (5b-value DWI and 2b-value DWI with b = 0 and 800 s/mm2) according to DWI-based BI-RADS and in combination with the standard dynamic contrast-enhanced images (combined MRI). Interobserver and intermethod agreements were assessed using kappa statistics. The specificity and sensitivity of lesion classification were evaluated.

    Results: Ninety-five breast lesions (39 malignant and 56 benign) were evaluated. Interobserver agreement for lesion assessment on 5b-value DWI was very good (k ≥ 0.82) for DWI-based BI-RADS categories, lesion type, and mass characteristics; good (k = 0.75) in breast composition; and moderate (k ≥ 0.44) in background parenchymal signal (BPS) and non-mass distribution. Intermethod agreement between assessments performed using either 5b-value DWI or combined MRI was good-to-moderate (k = 0.52–0.67) for lesion type; moderate (k = 0.49–0.59) for DWI-based BI-RADS category and mass characteristics; and fair (k = 0.25–0.40) for mass shape, BPS, and breast composition. The sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPVs) for 5b-value DWI were 79.5%, 84.6% and 60.8%, 61.1% for each reader, respectively; 74.4%, 74.4% and 63.0%, 61.7% for 2b-value DWI; and 97.4%, 97.4% and 73.1%, 76.0% for combined MRI. The specificity and negative predictive values (NPVs) were 64.3%, 62.5% and 81.8%, 85.4% for 5b-value DWI; 69.6%, 67.9% and 79.6%, 79.2% for 2b-value DWI; and 75.0%, 78.6% and 97.7%, 97.8% for combined MRI.

    Conclusion: Good observer agreement was observed in the 5b-value DWI. The 5b-value DWI based on multiple b-values might have the potential to complement the 2b-value DWI; however, their diagnostic performance tended to be inferior to that of combined MRI for the characterization of breast tumors.

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  • Minkyeong Kim, Tae Young Lee, Byeong Seong Kang, Woon Jung Kwon, Soyeo ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0144
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: May 13, 2023

    Purpose: Although diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with ultra-high b-values is reported to be advantageous in the detection of some tumors, its applicability is not yet known in biliary malignancy. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of measured b = 1400 s/mm2 (M1400) and calculated b = 1400 s/mm2 (C1400) DWI on image quality and quality of lesion discernibility using a modern 3T MR system compared to conventional b = 800 s/mm2 DWI (M800).

    Methods: We evaluated 56 patients who had pathologically proven biliary malignancy. All the patients underwent preoperative or baseline 3T MRI using DWI (b = 50, 400, 800, and 1400 s/mm2). The calculated DWI was obtained using a conventional DWI set (b = 50, 400, and 800). The tumor-to-bile contrast ratio (CR) and tumor SNR were compared between the different DWI images. Likert scores were given on a 5-point scale to assess the overall image quality, overall artifacts, ghost artifacts, misregistration artifacts, margin sharpness, and lesion discernibility. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc analyses was used for statistical evaluations.

    Results: The CR of the tumor-to-bile was significantly higher in both M1400 and C1400 than in M800 (Pa < 0.01). SNRs were significantly higher in M800, followed by C1400 and M1400 (Pa < 0.01). Lesion discernibility was significantly improved for M1400, followed by C1400 and M800 for both readers (Pa < 0.01).

    Conclusion: Using a 3T MRI, both measured and calculated DWI with an ultra-high b-value offer superior lesion discernibility for biliary malignancy compared to the conventional DWI.

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  • Shoko Hara, Masaaki Hori, Koji Kamagata, Christina Andica, Motoki Inaj ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0146
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: April 18, 2023
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a cerebrovascular disease associated with steno-occlusive changes in the arteries of the circle of Willis and with hemodynamic impairment. Previous studies have reported that parenchymal extracellular free water levels may be increased and the number of neurites may be decreased in patients with MMD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postoperative changes in parenchymal free water and neurites and their relationship with cognitive improvement.

    Methods: Multi-shell diffusion MRI (neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging and free water imaging using a bi-tensor model) was performed in 15 hemispheres of 13 adult patients with MMD (11 female, mean age 37.9 years) who had undergone revascularization surgery as well as age- and sex-matched normal controls. Parameter maps of free water and free-water-eliminated neurites were created, and the regional parameter values were compared among controls, patients before surgery, and patients after surgery.

    Results: The anterior and middle cerebral artery territories of patients showed higher preoperative free water levels (P ≤ 0.007) and lower postoperative free water levels (P ≤ 0.001) than those of normal controls. The change in the dispersion of the white matter in the anterior cerebral artery territory correlated with cognitive improvement (r = –0.75; P = 0.004).

    Conclusion: Our study suggests that increased parenchymal free water levels decreased after surgery and that postoperative changes in neurite parameters are related to postoperative cognitive improvement in adult patients with MMD. Diffusion analytical methods separately calculating free water and neurites may be useful for unraveling the pathophysiology of chronic ischemia and the postoperative changes that occur after revascularization surgery in this disease population.

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  • Daiki Ito, Tetsushi Habe, Tomokazu Numano, Shigeo Okuda, Shigeyoshi So ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0149
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: April 12, 2023

    Purpose: This study aimed to facilitate research progress in MR elastography (MRE) by providing a versatile and convenient application for MRE reconstruction, namely the MRE research tool (MRE-rTool). It can be used for a series of MRE image analyses, including phase unwrapping, arbitrary bandpass and directional filtering, noise assessment of the wave propagation image (motion SNR), and reconstruction of the elastogram in both 2D and 3D MRE acquisitions. To reinforce the versatility of MRE-rTool, the conventional method of motion SNR was modified into a new method that reflects the effects of image filtering.

    Methods: MRE tests of the phantom and liver were performed using different estimation algorithms for stiffness value (algebraic inversion of the differential equation [AIDE], local frequency estimation [LFE] in MRE-rTool, and multimodel direct inversion [MMDI] in clinical reconstruction) and acquiring dimensions (2D and 3D acquisitions). This study also tested the accuracy of masking low SNR regions using modified and conventional motion SNR under various mechanical vibration powers.

    Results: The stiffness values estimated using AIDE/LFE in MRE-rTool were comparable to that of MMDI (phantom, 3.71 ± 0.74, 3.60 ± 0.32, and 3.60 ± 0.54 kPa in AIDE, LFE, and MMDI; liver, 2.26 ± 0.31, 2.74 ± 0.16, and 2.21 ± 0.26 kPa in AIDE, LFE, and MMDI). The stiffness value in 3D acquisition was independent of the direction of the motion-encoding gradient and was more accurate than that of 2D acquisition. The masking of low SNR regions using the modified motion SNR worked better than that in the conventional motion SNR for each vibration power, especially when using a directional filter.

    Conclusion: The performance of MRE-rTool on test data reached the level required in clinical MRE studies. MRE-rTool has the potential to facilitate MRE research, contribute to the future development of MRE, and has been freely released online.

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  • Shimpei Kato, Ryo Kurokawa, Fumio Suzuki, Shiori Amemiya, Takahiro Shi ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0099
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2023

    Purpose: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined by a burning sensation or pain in the tongue or other oral sites despite the presence of normal mucosa on inspection. Both psychiatric and neuroimaging investigations have examined BMS; however, there have been no analyses using the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) model, which provides detailed information of intra- and extracellular microstructures. Therefore, we performed voxel-wise analyses using both NODDI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) models and compared the results to better comprehend the pathology of BMS.

    Methods: Fourteen patients with BMS and 11 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were prospectively scanned using a 3T-MRI machine using 2-shell diffusion imaging. Diffusion tensor metrics (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], axial diffusivity [AD], and radial diffusivity [RD]) and neurite orientation and dispersion index metrics (intracellular volume fraction [ICVF], isotropic volume fraction [ISO], and orientation dispersion index [ODI]) were retrieved from diffusion MRI data. These data were analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and gray matter-based spatial statistics (GBSS).

    Results: TBSS analysis showed that patients with BMS had significantly higher FA and ICVF and lower MD and RD than the healthy control subjects (family-wise error [FWE] corrected P < 0.05). Changes in ICVF, MD, and RD were observed in widespread white matter areas. Fairly small areas with different FA were included. GBSS analysis showed that patients with BMS had significantly higher ISO and lower MD and RD than the healthy control subjects (FWE-corrected P < 0.05), mainly limited to the amygdala.

    Conclusion: The increased ICVF in the BMS group may represent myelination and/or astrocytic hypertrophy, and microstructural changes in the amygdala in GBSS analysis indicate the emotional-affective profile of BMS.

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  • Kengo Kiso, Takahiro Tsuboyama, Hiromitsu Onishi, Kazuya Ogawa, Atsush ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0111
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2023

    Purpose: To compare the effects of deep learning reconstruction (DLR) on respiratory-triggered T2-weighted MRI of the liver between single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) and fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences.

    Methods: Respiratory-triggered fat-suppressed liver T2-weighted MRI was obtained with the FSE and SSFSE sequences at the same spatial resolution in 55 patients. Conventional reconstruction (CR) and DLR were applied to each sequence, and the SNR and liver-to-lesion contrast were measured on FSE-CR, FSE-DLR, SSFSE-CR, and SSFSE-DLR images. Image quality was independently assessed by three radiologists. The results of the qualitative and quantitative analyses were compared among the four types of images using repeated-measures analysis of variance or Friedman’s test for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively, and a visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis was performed to evaluate the image quality improvement by DLR on the FSE and SSFSE sequences.

    Results: The liver SNR was lowest on SSFSE-CR and highest on FSE-DLR and SSFSE-DLR (P < 0.01). The liver-to-lesion contrast did not differ significantly among the four types of images. Qualitatively, noise scores were worst on SSFSE-CR but best on SSFSE-DLR because DLR significantly reduced noise (P < 0.01). In contrast, artifact scores were worst both on FSE-CR and FSE-DLR (P < 0.01) because DLR did not reduce the artifacts. Lesion conspicuity was significantly improved by DLR compared with CR in the SSFSE (P < 0.01) but not in FSE sequences for all readers. Overall image quality was significantly improved by DLR compared with CR for all readers in the SSFSE (P < 0.01) but only one reader in the FSE (P < 0.01). The mean area under the VGC curve values for the FSE-DLR and SSFSE-DLR sequences were 0.65 and 0.94, respectively.

    Conclusion: In liver T2-weighted MRI, DLR produced more marked improvements in image quality in SSFSE than in FSE.

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  • Vadim Malis, Won C. Bae, Asako Yamamoto, Yoshimori Kassai, Marin A McD ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0073
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: March 23, 2023
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: Fatty acid composition of the orbit makes it challenging to achieve complete fat suppression during orbit MR imaging. Implementation of a fat suppression technique capable of suppressing signals from saturated (aliphatic) and unsaturated (olefinic or protons at double-bonded carbon sites) fat would improve the visualization of an optical nerve. Furthermore, the ability to semi-quantify the fractions of aliphatic and olefinic fat may potentially provide valuable information in assessing orbit pathology.

    Methods: A phantom study was conducted on various oil samples on a clinical 3 Tesla scanner. The imaging protocol included three 2D fast spin echo (FSE) sequences: in-phase, polarity-altered spectral and spatial selective acquisition (PASTA), and a combination of PASTA with opposed phase in olefinic and aliphatic chemical shift. The results were validated against high-resolution 11.7T NMR and compared with images acquired with spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) and chemical shift selective (CHESS) fat suppression techniques. In-vivo data were acquired on eight healthy subjects and were compared with the prior histological studies.

    Results: PASTA with opposed phase achieved complete suppression of fat signals in the orbits and provided images of well-delineated optical nerves and muscles in all subjects. The olefinic fat fraction in the olive, walnut, and fish oil phantoms at 3T was found to be 5.0%, 11.2%, and 12.8%, respectively, whereas 11.7T NMR provides the following olefinic fat fractions: 6.0% for olive, 11.5% for walnut, and 12.6% for fish oils. For the in-vivo study, on average, olefinic fat accounted for 9.9% ± 3.8% of total fat while the aliphatic fat fraction was 90.1% ± 3.8%, in the normal orbits.

    Conclusion: We have introduced a new fat suppression technique using PASTA with opposed phase and applied it to human orbits. The purposed method achieves an excellent orbital fat suppression and the quantification of aliphatic and olefinic fat signals.

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  • Masatoshi Iwamura, Satoru Ide, Kenya Sato, Akihisa Kakuta, Soichiro Ta ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0112
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: March 16, 2023

    Purpose: Brain MRI with high spatial resolution allows for a more detailed delineation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. The recently developed deep learning-based reconstruction (DLR) technique enables image denoising with sharp edges and reduced artifacts, which improves the image quality of thin-slice 2D MRI. We, therefore, assessed the diagnostic value of 1 mm-slice-thickness 2D T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) with DLR (1 mm T2WI with DLR) compared with conventional MRI for identifying MS lesions.

    Methods: Conventional MRI (5 mm T2WI, 2D and 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) and 1 mm T2WI with DLR (imaging time: 7 minutes) were performed in 42 MS patients. For lesion detection, two neuroradiologists counted the MS lesions in two reading sessions (conventional MRI interpretation with 5 mm T2WI and MRI interpretations with 1 mm T2WI with DLR). The numbers of lesions per region category (cerebral hemisphere, basal ganglia, brain stem, cerebellar hemisphere) were then compared between the two reading sessions.

    Results: For the detection of MS lesions by 2 neuroradiologists, the total number of detected MS lesions was significantly higher for MRI interpretation with 1 mm T2WI with DLR than for conventional MRI interpretation with 5 mm T2WI (765 lesions vs. 870 lesions at radiologist A, < 0.05). In particular, of the 33 lesions in the brain stem, radiologist A detected 21 (63.6%) additional lesions by 1 mm T2WI with DLR.

    Conclusion: Using the DLR technique, whole-brain 1 mm T2WI can be performed in about 7 minutes, which is feasible for routine clinical practice. MRI with 1 mm T2WI with DLR enabled increased MS lesion detection, particularly in the brain stem.

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  • Mitsue Miyazaki, Vadim Malis, Asako Yamamoto, Jirach Kungsamutr, Linda ...
    Article ID: mp.2023-0005
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: March 11, 2023

    Purpose: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is essential for maintaining a healthy brain and cognition by removal of metabolic waste from the central nervous system. Physical exercise has been shown to improve human health; however, the effect of physical exercise on intrinsic CSF outflow in humans remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate intrinsic CSF outflow pathways and quantitative metrics of healthy individuals with active and sedentary lifestyles. In addition, the effect of exercise was investigated among the sedentary subjects before and after 3 weeks of physical activity.

    Methods: This study was performed on 18 healthy adults with informed consent, using a clinical 3-Tesla MRI scanner. We classified participants into two groups based on reported time spent sitting per day (active group: < 7 hours sitting per day and sedentary group: ≥ 7 hours sitting per day). To elucidate the effect of exercise, sedentary individuals increased their activity to 3.5 hours for 3 weeks.

    Results: We show that there are two intrinsic CSF egress pathways of the dura mater and lower parasagittal dura (PSD). The adults with an active lifestyle had greater intrinsic CSF outflow metrics than adults with a more sedentary lifestyle. However, after increased physical activity, the sedentary group showed improved CSF outflow metrics. This improvement was particularly notable at the lower PSD, where outflow metrics were highest among the active group.

    Conclusion: Our findings describe the relationship between physical activity and intrinsic CSF outflow and show a potential selective outflow pathway with increasing physical activity in the lower PSD pathway, potentially from the perivascular space or cortical venous subpial space.

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  • Hiroaki Shimizu, Naoko Mori, Shunji Mugikura, Yui Maekawa, Minoru Miya ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0091
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: March 01, 2023
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of the texture analysis of axillary high-resolution 3D T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) in distinguishing positive and negative lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer.

    Methods: Between December 2017 and May 2021, 242 consecutive patients underwent high-resolution 3D T2WI and were classified into the training (n = 160) and validation cohorts (n = 82). We performed manual 3D segmentation of all visible LNs in axillary level I to extract the texture features. As the additional parameters, the number of the LNs and the total volume of all LNs for each case were calculated. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm and Random Forest were used to construct the models. We constructed the texture model using the features from the LN with the largest least axis length in the training cohort. Furthermore, we constructed the 3 models combining the selected texture features of the LN with the largest least axis length, the number of LNs, and the total volume of all LNs: texture-number model, texture-volume model, and texture-number-volume model. As a conventional method, we manually measured the largest cortical diameter. Moreover, we performed the receiver operating curve analysis in the validation cohort and compared area under the curves (AUCs) of the models.

    Results: The AUCs of the texture model, texture-number model, texture-volume model, texture-number-volume model, and conventional method in the validation cohort were 0.7677, 0.7403, 0.8129, 0.7448, and 0.6851, respectively. The AUC of the texture-volume model was higher than those of other models and conventional method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the texture-volume model were 90%, 69%, 49%, and 96%, respectively.

    Conclusion: The texture-volume model of high-resolution 3D T2WI effectively distinguished positive and negative LN metastasis for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer.

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  • Shoto Ikegami, Dai Ishiyama, Yoshiki Oda, Kinuko Niihara, Masafumi Yos ...
    Article ID: bc.2022-0070
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2023

    Metamorphosis in the pupae of the Trypoxylus dichotomus was continuously observed at 9.4T until their emergence. A large liquid-like mass occupied most of the volume in the trunk, while the surrounding tissue already existed at the beginning of the observation period. As the mass shrunk, tissues such as flight muscle formed, whereas the reservoir became prolonged to form the intestinal tract. This implies that the liquid-like mass worked as the raw material for creating adult tissues.

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  • Hinako Oshiro, Junichi Hata, Daisuke Nakashima, Naoya Hayashi, Yawara ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0103
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: February 08, 2023
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: Diffusion MRI is a physical measurement method that quantitatively indicates the displacement of water molecules diffusing in voxels. However, there are insufficient data to characterize the diffusion process physically in a uniform structure such as a phantom. This study investigated the transitional relationship between structure scale, temperature, and diffusion time for simple restricted diffusion using a capillary phantom.

    Methods: We performed diffusion-weighted pulsed-gradient stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM) MRI with a 9.4 Tesla MRI system (Bruker BioSpin, Ettlingen, Germany) and a quadrature coil with an inner diameter of 86 mm (Bruker BioSpin). We measured the diffusion coefficients (radial diffusivity [RD]) of capillary plates (pore sizes 6, 12, 25, 50, and 100 μm) with uniformly restricted structures at various temperatures (10ºC, 20ºC, 30ºC, and 40ºC) and multiple diffusion times (12–800 ms). We evaluated the characteristics of scale, temperature, and diffusion time for restricted diffusion.

    Results: The RD decayed and became constant depending on the structural scale. Diffusion coefficient fluctuations with temperature occurred mostly under conditions of a large structural scale and short diffusion time. We obtained data suggesting that temperature-dependent changes in the diffusion coefficients follow physical laws.

    Conclusion: No water molecules were observed outside the glass tubes in the capillary plates, and the capillary plates only reflected a restricted diffusion process within the structure.

    We experimentally evaluated the characteristics of simple restricted diffusion to reveal the transitional relationship of the diffusion coefficient with diffusion time, structure scale, and temperature through composite measurement.

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  • Tomohiko Nishino, Kazuhiro Takahashi, Sayaka Ono, Masakazu Mimaki
    Article ID: mp.2022-0140
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: February 07, 2023

    Purpose: Despite the usefulness of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI in assessing glomerulonephritis activity, its relationship with histological findings remains unclear. Because glomerulonephritis presents multiple complex injury patterns, analysis of each pattern is essential. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between the histological findings of the kidney and BOLD MRI findings in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis.

    Methods: Children under 16 years of age diagnosed with mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis by kidney biopsy at our university hospital between January 2013 and September 2022 were included in this study. Cortical and medullary spin relaxation rate (R2*) values were measured using BOLD MRI at 3T within two weeks before and after the kidney biopsy. The R2* values, including the fluctuations with low-dose oxygen administration, were retrospectively examined in relation to the cortical (mesangial proliferation, endothelial cell proliferation, crescent, sclerosis, and fibrosis) and medullary findings (fibrosis).

    Results: Sixteen times kidney biopsies were performed for glomerulonephritis during the study period, and one patient was excluded because of comorbidities; the remaining 14 patients included six boys with a mean age of 11.9 ± 3.5 years at the BOLD examination. None of the patients had medullary fibrosis. Among the kidney tissue parameters, only sclerosis showed a significant correlation with R2* values: medulla with R2* values under atmospheric pressure (r = 0.53, P < 0.05) and cortex with the rate of change in R2* values with low-dose oxygen administration (r = −0.57, P < 0.03). In the multiple regression analysis, only sclerosis was an independent contributor to the change in R2* values with oxygen administration in the cortex (regression coefficient −0.109, P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Since the R2* values reflect histological changes in the kidney, BOLD MRI may facilitate the evaluation of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, potentially reducing the patient burden.

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  • Kenichiro Ihara, Hideko Onoda, Masahiro Tanabe, Etsushi Iida, Takaaki ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0137
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: February 04, 2023

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of breath-hold (BH) high-resolution (HR) T1-weighted gradient echo hepatobiliary phase (HBP) imaging using compressed sensing (CS) in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI in comparison with standard HBP imaging using parallel imaging (PI).

    Methods: The study included 122 patients with liver tumors with hypointensity in the HBP who underwent both HR HBP imaging with CS and standard HBP imaging with PI. Two radiologists evaluated the liver edge sharpness, hepatic vessel conspicuity, bile duct conspicuity, image noise, and overall image quality, as well as the lesion conspicuity on HR and standard HBP imaging and the contrast-enhanced (CE) MR cholangiography (MRC) image quality reconstructed from HBP images. As a quantitative analysis, the SNR of the liver and the liver to lesion signal intensity ratio (LLSIR) were also determined.

    Results: The liver edge sharpness, hepatic vessel conspicuity, bile duct conspicuity, and overall image quality as well as the lesion conspicuity and the LLSIR on HR HBP imaging with CS were significantly higher than those on standard HBP imaging (all of P < 0.001). The image quality of CE-MRC reconstructed from HR HBP imaging with CS was also significantly higher than that from standard HBP imaging (P < 0.001). Conversely, the SNR of liver in standard HBP was significantly higher than that in HR HBP with CS (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: BH HR HBP imaging with CS provided an improved overall image quality, lesion conspicuity, and CE-MRC visualization when compared with standard HBP imaging without extending the acquisition time.

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  • Mayumi Takeuchi, Kenji Matsuzaki, Yoshimi Bando, Masafumi Harada
    Article ID: mp.2022-0067
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: January 24, 2023

    Purpose: Adenomatoid tumor is a rare benign genital tract neoplasm of mesothelial origin. Uterine adenomatoid tumors occur in the outer myometrium and may mimic leiomyomas. Because hormonal treatment is not applicable to adenomatoid tumors and laparoscopic enucleation is not easy as myomectomy, it is important to differentiate adenomatoid tumors from leiomyomas for the adequate treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MRI findings of adenomatoid tumor for the differentiation from leiomyoma.

    Methods: MRI findings of surgically proven 10 uterine adenomatoid tumors in 9 women were retrospectively evaluated with correlation to histopathological findings.

    Results: All 10 tumors appeared as solid myometrial masses and showed heterogeneous signal intensity with admixture of partially ill-defined slight high-intensity areas containing abundant tubular tumor cells and well-defined myoma-like low-intensity areas reflecting smooth muscle hypertrophy on T2WI including 4 lesions with peripheral ring-like high intensity. High-intensity areas on T2WI tended to show high intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with relatively high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), suggesting T2 shine-through effect due to abundant tubules. Intra-tumoral hemorrhage revealed on MRI was rare. Early intense contrast-enhanced areas on dynamic contrast-enhanced study were observed dominantly within the high-intensity areas but rarely within the low-intensity areas on T2WI.

    Conclusion: The outer myometrial mass with the admixture of well-defined low- and ill-defined high-intensity areas on T2WI may be suggestive of adenomatoid tumor. Peripheral ring-like high intensity on T2WI and DWI may also be suggestive. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR study may be helpful for the differentiation from leiomyoma.

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  • Seiya Kishi, Masayuki Maeda, Fumine Tanaka, Ryota Kogue, Maki Umino, H ...
    Article ID: bc.2022-0120
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: January 24, 2023

    We observed a new SWI finding, “cortical brush sign,” that represents prominent venous structures in the cortex of patients with acute cerebral infarct with or without moyamoya disease and cerebral venous thrombosis. The cortical brush sign disappeared on follow-up SWI in all cases. Cortical brush sign may help to understand the pathophysiology of venous structures in the cortex at acute phase.

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  • Masaki Ishida, Jérôme Yerly, Haruno Ito, Masafumi Takafuji, Shiro Naka ...
    Article ID: tn.2022-0086
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: January 20, 2023

    Free-running 5D whole-heart coronary MR angiography (MRA) is gaining in popularity because it reduces scanning complexity by removing the need for specific slice orientations, respiratory gating, or cardiac triggering. At 3T, a gradient echo (GRE) sequence is preferred in combination with contrast injection. However, neither the injection scheme of the gadolinium (Gd) contrast medium, the choice of the RF excitation angle, nor the dedicated image reconstruction parameters have been established for 3T GRE free-running 5D whole-heart coronary MRA. In this study, a Gd injection scheme, RF excitation angles of lipid-insensitive binominal off-resonance RF excitation (LIBRE) pulse for valid fat suppression and continuous data acquisition, and compressed-sensing reconstruction regularization parameters were optimized for contrast-enhanced free-running 5D whole-heart coronary MRA using a GRE sequence at 3T. Using this optimized protocol, contrast-enhanced free-running 5D whole-heart coronary MRA using a GRE sequence is feasible with good image quality at 3T.

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  • Shinji Naganawa, Rintaro Ito, Mariko Kawamura, Toshiaki Taoka, Tadao Y ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0110
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: January 19, 2023

    Purpose: To investigate the characteristics of the putative meningeal lymphatics located at the posterior wall of the sigmoid sinus (PML-PSS) in human subjects imaged before and after intravenous administration (IV) of a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). The appearance of the PML-PSS and the enhancement of the perivascular space of the basal ganglia (PVS-BG) were analyzed for an association with gender, age, and clearance of the GBCA from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

    Methods: Forty-two patients with suspected endolymphatic hydrops were included. Heavily T2-weighted 3D-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (hT2w-3D-FLAIR) and 3D-real inversion recovery (IR) images were obtained at pre-administration, immediately post-administration, and at 4 and 24 hours after IV-GBCA. The appearance of the PML-PSS and the presence of enhancement in the PVS-BG were analyzed for a relationship with age, gender, contrast enhancement of the CSF at 4 hours after IV-GBCA, and the washout ratio of the GBCA in the CSF from 4 to 24 hours after IV-GBCA.

    Results: The PML-PSS and PVS-BG were seen in 23 of 42 and 21 of 42 cases, respectively, at 4 hours after IV-GBCA. In all PML-PSS positive cases, hT2w-3D-FLAIR signal enhancement was highest at 4 hours after IV-GBCA. A multivariate analysis between gender, age, CSF signal elevation at 4 hours, and washout ratio indicated that only the washout ratio was independently associated with the enhancement of the PML-PSS or PVS-BG. The odds ratios (95% CIs; P value) were 4.09 × 10–5 (2.39 × 10–8 – 0.07; 0.0078) for the PML-PSS and 1.7 × 10–4 (1.66 × 10–7 – 0.174; 0.014) for the PVS-BG.

    Conclusion: The PML-PSS had the highest signal enhancement at 4 hours after IV-GBCA. When the PML-PSS was seen, there was also often enhancement of the PVS-BG at 4 hours after IV-GBCA. Both observed enhancements were associated with delayed GBCA excretion from the CSF.

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  • Tomoki Amemiya, Suguru Yokosawa, Yo Taniguchi, Ryota Sato, Yoshihisa S ...
    Article ID: mp.2021-0170
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: December 21, 2022

    Purpose: To increase the number of images that can be acquired in MR examinations using quantitative parameters, we developed a method for obtaining arterial and venous images with mapping of proton density (PD), RF inhomogeneity (B1), longitudinal relaxation time (T1), apparent transverse relaxation time (T2*), and magnetic susceptibility through calculation, all with the same spatial resolution.

    Methods: The proposed method uses partially RF-spoiled gradient echo sequences to obtain 3D images of a subject with multiple scan parameters. The PD, B1, T1, T2*, and magnetic susceptibility maps are estimated using the quantification method we previously developed. Arterial images are obtained by adding images using optimized weights to emphasize the arteries. A morphology filter is used to obtain venous images from the magnetic susceptibility maps. For evaluation, images obtained from four out of five healthy volunteers were used to optimize the weights used in the arterial-image calculation, and the optimized weights were applied to the images from the fifth volunteer to obtain an arterial image. Arterial images of the five volunteers were calculated using the leave-one-out method, and the contrast between the arterial and background regions defined using the reference time-of-flight (TOF) method was evaluated using the area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC). The contrast between venous and background regions defined by a reference quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) method was also evaluated for the venous image.

    Results: The AUC to discriminate blood vessels and background using the proposed method was 0.905 for the arterial image and 0.920 for the venous image.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that the arterial images and venous images have high signal intensity at the same region as determined from the reference TOF and QSM methods, demonstrating the possibility of acquiring vasculature images with quantitative parameter mapping through calculation in an integrated manner.

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  • Vadim Malis, Won C. Bae, Asako Yamamoto, Linda K. McEvoy, Marin A. McD ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0117
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: December 17, 2022
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: Clearance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for the removal of toxins from the brain, with implications for neurodegenerative diseases. Imaging evaluation of CSF outflow in humans has been limited, relying on venous or invasive intrathecal injections of contrast agents. The objective of this study was to introduce a novel spin-labeling MRI technique to detect and quantify the movement of endogenously tagged CSF, and then apply it to evaluate CSF outflow in normal humans of varying ages.

    Methods: This study was performed on a clinical 3-Tesla MRI scanner in 16 healthy subjects with an age range of 19–71 years with informed consent. Our spin-labeling MRI technique applies a tag pulse on the brain hemisphere, and images the outflow of the tagged CSF into the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). We obtained 3D images in real time, which was analyzed to determine tagged-signal changes in different regions of the meninges involved in CSF outflow. Additionally, the signal changes over time were fit to a signal curve to determine quantitative flow metrics. These were correlated against subject age to determine aging effects.

    Results: We observed the signal of the tagged CSF moving from the dura mater and parasagittal dura, and finally draining into the SSS. In addition, we observed a possibility of another pathway which is seen in some young subjects. Furthermore, quantitative CSF outflow metrics were shown to decrease significantly with age.

    Conclusion: We demonstrate a novel non-invasive MRI technique identifying two intrinsic CSF clearance pathways, and observe an age-related decline of CSF flow metrics in healthy subjects. Our work provides a new opportunity to better understand the relationships of these CSF clearance pathways during the aging process, which may ultimately provide insight into the age-related prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases.

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  • Hye Na Jung, Inseon Ryoo, Sangil Suh, Young Hen Lee, Eunju Kim
    Article ID: mp.2022-0082
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: December 16, 2022

    Purpose: The assessment of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients is crucial; as such, many studies focusing on non-invasive imaging techniques to evaluate metastatic cervical lymph nodes have been performed. The aim of our study was to assess the usefulness of elasticity values on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)-based virtual MR elastography in the evaluation of metastatic cervical lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Methods: Two head and neck radiologists measured the elasticity values of 16 metastatic cervical lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and 13 benign cervical lymph nodes on DWI-based virtual MR elastography maps. Mean, minimum, maximum, and median elasticity values were evaluated for lymph nodes between the two groups and interobserver agreement in measuring the elasticity was also evaluated.

    Results: The mean, maximum, and median elasticity values of metastatic cervical lymph nodes were significantly higher than those of benign cervical lymph nodes (P = 0.001, 0.01, and 0.002, respectively). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the mean elasticity were 82.8%, 93.8%, and 69.2%, respectively. Interobserver agreement was excellent for the mean and median elasticity (intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.98 for both).

    Conclusion: Estimated elasticity values based on DWI-based virtual MR elastography show significant difference between benign and metastatic cervical lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. While precise modulation of MR sequences and calibration parameters still needs to be established, elasticity values can be useful in differentiating between these lymph nodes.

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  • Daisuke Yamada, Masaki Matsusako, Daisuke Yoneoka, Katsunori Oikado, H ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0125
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: December 16, 2022

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ex-vivo MRI enables accurate estimation of the invasive component of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent lung lobectomy. The specimens underwent MRI at 1.5T. The boundary between the lesion and the normal lung was evaluated on a 5-point scale in each three MRI sequences, and a one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc tests were performed. The invasive component size was measured histopathologically. The maximum diameter of each solid component measured on CT and MR T1-weighted (T1W) images and the maximum size obtained from histopathologic images were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Inter-reader agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC).

    Results: T1W images were determined to be optimal for the delineation of the lesions (P < 0.001). The histopathologic invasive area corresponded to the area where the T1W ex-vivo MR image showed a high signal intensity that was almost equal to the intravascular blood signal. The maximum diameter of the solid component on CT was overestimated compared with the maximum invasive size on histopathology (mean, 153%; P < 0.05), while that on MRI was evaluated mostly accurately without overestimation (mean, 108%; P = 0.48). The interobserver reliability of the measurements using CT and MRI was good (ICC = 0.71 on CT, 0.74 on MRI).

    Conclusion: Ex-vivo MRI was more accurate than conventional CT in delineating the invasive component of lung adenocarcinoma.

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  • Yuri Nakamura, Yasutaka Fushimi, Takuya Hinoda, Satoshi Nakajima, Akih ...
    Article ID: ici.2022-0109
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: December 13, 2022

    Hemorrhage inside the mammillary bodies (MMBs) is known to be one of the findings of Wernicke encephalopathy. Brain MRI of two patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) demonstrated high susceptibility values representing hemosiderin deposition in MMBs by using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). QSM provided additional information of susceptibility values to susceptibility-weighted imaging in diagnosis of WKS.

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  • Makiko Kubooka, Masaki Ishida, Masafumi Takafuji, Haruno Ito, Takanori ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0025
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: December 13, 2022
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: Pulmonary emphysema may associate with ischemic heart disease through systemic microvascular abnormality as a common pathway. Stress cardiovascular MR (CMR) allows for the assessment of global coronary flow reserve (CFR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the emphysema severity and the multiple MRI parameters in the emphysema patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD).

    Methods: A total of 210 patients with known or suspected CAD who underwent both 3.0T CMR including cine CMR, stress and rest perfusion CMR, stress and rest phase-contrast (PC) cine CMR of coronary sinus, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR, and lung CT within 6 months were studied. Global CFR, volumes and functions of both ventricles and atria, and presence or absence of myocardial ischemia and infarction were evaluated. Emphysema severity was visually determined on lung CT by Goddard method.

    Result: Seventy nine (71.0 ± 7.9 years, 75 male) of 210 patients with known or suspected CAD had emphysema on lung CT. Goddard score was significantly correlated with CFR (r = –0.246, P = 0.029), left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LV EDVI) (r = –0.230, P = 0.041), right ventricular systolic volume index (RV SVI) (r = –0.280, P = 0.012), left atrial (LA) total emptying volume index (r = –0.269, P = 0.017), LA passive emptying volume index (r = –0.309, P = 0.006), LA systolic strain (Es) (r = –0.244, P = 0.030), and LA conduit strain (Ee) (r = –0.285, P = 0.011) in the patients with emphysema. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed LA conduit function was independently associated with emphysema severity as determined by Goddard method (beta = –0.361, P = 0.006).

    Conclusion: LA conduit function independently associates with emphysema severity in the emphysema patients with known or suspected CAD after adjusting age, sex, smoking, and the CMR indexes including CFR. These findings suggest that impairment of LA function predominantly occurs prior to the reduction of the CFR in the emphysema patients with known or suspected CAD.

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  • Kotomi Iwata, Tetsuro Sekine, Junya Matsuda, Masaki Tachi, Yoichi Imor ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0051
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: December 13, 2022

    Purpose: The turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) estimation based on 4D flow MRI has been currently developed and can be used to estimate the pressure gradient. The objective of this study was to validate the clinical value of 4D flow-based TKE measurement in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

    Methods: From April 2018 to March 2019, we recruited 28 patients with HCM. Based on echocardiography, they were divided into obstructed HCM (HOCM) and non-obstructed HCM (HNCM). Triple-velocity encoding 4D flow MRI was performed. The volume-of-interest from the left ventricle to the aortic arch was drawn semi-automatically. We defined peak turbulent kinetic energy (TKEpeak) as the highest TKE phase in all cardiac phases.

    Results: TKEpeak was significantly higher in HOCM than in HNCM (14.83 ± 3.91 vs. 7.11 ± 3.60 mJ, P < 0.001). TKEpeak was significantly higher in patients with systolic anterior movement (SAM) than in those without SAM (15.60 ± 3.96 vs. 7.44 ± 3.29 mJ, P < 0.001). Left ventricular (LV) mass increased proportionally with TKEpeak (P = 0.012, r = 0.466). When only the asymptomatic patients were extracted, a stronger correlation was observed (P = 0.001, r = 0.842).

    Conclusion: TKE measurement based on 4D flow MRI can detect the flow alteration induced by systolic flow jet and LV outflow tract geometry, such as SAM in patients with HOCM. The elevated TKE is correlated with increasing LV mass. This indicates that increasing cardiac load, by pressure loss due to turbulence, induces progression of LV hypertrophy, which leads to a worse prognosis.

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  • Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Yuji Iwadate, Futoshi Mori, Kota Takeda, Makoto Sasa ...
    Article ID: tn.2022-0053
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 30, 2022

    Flip angle (FA) measurements using the actual flip angle imaging (AFI) method may induce significant errors in ultrahigh fields. We aimed to develop a method for detecting errors in FA measurements using phase information at 7 tesla. We performed computer simulations to elucidate the relationship between the FA calculation errors and the phase difference between the two AFI source images. We then examined whether a method based on the phase difference could detect FA calculation errors and determine the prescribed nominal FA of the scanner for accurate measurements in phantoms and healthy volunteers. The simulations confirmed that the calculated FA values erroneously decreased when the longitudinal magnetization and phase in one of the source images were inverted. Tests on phantoms and human subjects demonstrated that the phase difference information between the source images with a cut-off of 90° could readily detect FA calculation errors in the AFI method.

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  • Sachiko Yamaguchi-Sekino, Noriko Kojimahara
    Article ID: bc.2022-0080
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 25, 2022
    Supplementary material

    The effect of maternal occupational non-ionizing radiation (NIR) exposure from MRI on premature birth and low birth weight delivery was analyzed based on questionnaire survey (263 employees, 443 births). Although the highest occurrence rates of both outcomes were observed in the group whose NIR exposure occurred only before pregnancy, no statistical significance was detected.

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  • Toshiaki Taoka, Rintaro Ito, Rei Nakamichi, Toshiki Nakane, Hisashi Ka ...
    Article ID: rev.2022-0012
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 25, 2022

    Interest in interstitial fluid dynamics has increased since the proposal of the glymphatic system hypothesis. Abnormal dynamics of the interstitial fluid have been pointed out to be an important factor in various pathological statuses. In this article, we propose the concept of central nervous system interstitial fluidopathy as a disease or condition in which abnormal interstitial fluid dynamics is one of the important factors for the development of a pathological condition. We discuss the aspects of interstitial fluidopathy in various diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and cerebral small vessel disease. We also discuss a method called “diffusion tensor image analysis along the perivascular space” using MR diffusion images, which is used to evaluate the degree of interstitial fluidopathy or the activity of the glymphatic system.

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  • Kohei Hamamoto, Emiko Chiba, Noriko Oyama-Manabe, Hironao Yuzawa, Hiro ...
    Article ID: tn.2022-0063
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 17, 2022

    Contrast-enhanced CT and MR angiography are widely used for follow-up of visceral artery aneurysms after coil embolization. However, potential adverse reactions to contrast agents and image deterioration due to susceptibility artifacts from the coils are major drawbacks of these modalities. Herein, we introduced a novel non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography technique using ultra-short TE combined with a modified signal targeting alternating radio frequency with asymmetric inversion slabs, which could provide a serial hemodynamic vascular image with fewer susceptibility artifacts for follow-up after coil embolization.

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  • Tsukasa Saida, Ayumi Shikama, Kensaku Mori, Toshitaka Ishiguro, Takeo ...
    Article ID: mp.2022-0061
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: November 12, 2022

    Purpose: To compare MRI findings of high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) with and without breast cancer (BRCA) gene variants to explore the feasibility of MRI as a genetic predictor.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed MRI data from 16 patients with BRCA variant-positive (11 patients of BRCA1 and 5 patients of BRCA2 variant-positive) and 32 patients with BRCA variant-negative HGSCs and evaluated tumor size, appearance, nature of solid components, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value, time-intensity curve, several dynamic contrast-enhanced curve descriptors, and nature of peritoneal metastasis. Age, primary site, tumor stage, bilaterality, presence of lymph node metastasis, presence of peritoneal metastasis, and tumor markers were also compared between the groups with the Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests.

    Results: The mean tumor size of BRCA variant-positive HGSCs was 9.6 cm, and that of variant-negative HGSCs was 6.8 cm, with no significant difference (P = 0.241). No significant difference was found between BRCA variant-positive and negative HGSCs in other evaluated factors, except for age (mean age, 53 years old; range, 32–78 years old for BRCA variant-positive and mean age, 61 years old; range, 44–80 years old for BRCA variant-negative, P = 0.033). Comparing BRCA1 variant-positive and BRCA2 variant-positive HGSCs, BRCA1 variant-positive HGSCs were larger (P = 0.040), had greater Max enhancement (P = 0.013), Area under the curve (P = 0.013), and CA125 (P = 0.038), and had a higher frequency of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.049), with significance.

    Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the MRI findings between patients with HGSCs with and without BRCA variants. Although studied in small numbers, BRCA1 variant-positive HGSCs were larger and more enhanced than BRCA2 variant-positive HGSCs with higher CA125 and more frequent lymph node metastases, and may represent more aggressive features.

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