Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
Online ISSN : 1880-2206
Print ISSN : 1347-3182
ISSN-L : 1347-3182
Advance online publication
Showing 1-45 articles out of 45 articles from Advance online publication
  • Kazuhiro Kitajima, Takako Kihara, Yusuke Kawanaka, Junko Takahama, Yos ...
    Article ID: mp.2020-0056
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 22, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine MRI features and staging of neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the endometrium and evaluate survival.

    Materials and Methods: Clinical data, pathological, and preoperative pelvic MRI findings in 22 patients with histologically surgery-proven endometrial NEC were retrospectively reviewed. Tumors were pure NEC (n = 10) or mixed histotype (n = 12), with 13 large and nine small cell type.

    Results: International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging was I, II, III, and IV in 6, 2, 12, and 2 patients, respectively. In 13 (76.4%) of 17 patients with pathological deep myometrial invasion, MRI showed abnormal diffusely infiltrative high T2 signal intensity throughout the myometrium with loss of normal uterine architecture. All tumors had restricted diffusion (apparent diffusion coefficient map low signal intensity, diffusion weighted imaging high signal intensity). Accuracy of T staging by MRI for all cases was 81.8%, with reference to pathology staging, while patient-based sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting metastatic pelvic lymph nodes was 60.0%, 100%, and 77.8%, respectively. Two intrapelvic peritoneal dissemination cases were detected by MRI. During follow-up (mean 30.4, range 3.3–138.4 months), 16 patients (72.7%) experienced recurrence and 12 (54.5%) died of disease. Two-year disease-free and overall survival rates for FIGO I, II, III, and IV were 66.7% and 83.3%, 50% and 100%, 10% and 33.3%, and 0% and 0%, respectively.

    Conclusion: Abnormal diffusely infiltrative high T2 signal intensity throughout the myometrium with normal uterine architecture loss and obvious restricted diffusion throughout the tumor are suggestive features of endometrial NEC. Pelvic MRI is reliable for intrapelvic staging of affected patients.

    Download PDF (3385K)
  • Shinji Naganawa, Rintaro Ito, Rei Nakamichi, Mariko Kawamura, Hisashi ...
    Article ID: mp.2020-0062
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 14, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the relationship between the number and size of cystic structures around the cortical veins near the superior sagittal sinus and the leakage of gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) around the cortical veins.

    Methods: Of 190 patients (91 male and 99 female), that were scanned at 4 h after an intravenous injection of GBCA as a diagnostic examination for endolymphatic hydrops, 6 patients with GBCA leakage were younger than the previously proposed threshold age of 37.3 years for leakage. Six age-matched patients without leakage were also included for reference. In addition, we included 8 cases without leakage that were older than the hypothesized threshold of 37.3 years, as well as 8 age-matched patients with GBCA leakage into the cerebrospinal fluid space. The number of cysts was counted and the sizes were measured in these 28 patients (age: 32–60 years old, 13 men and 15 women).

    Results: The mean number of cysts surrounding the cortical veins in the parasagittal region was 4.29 ± 1.77 vs. 1.79 ± 1.05 (P = 0.0001) in the subjects with and without GBCA leakage, respectively. The mean size of the largest cysts was at 8.89 ± 3.49 mm vs. 5.69 ± 2.29 (P = 0.009) in the subjects with and without GBCA leakage, respectively.

    Conclusion: The number and size of the perivenous cystic structures near the superior sagittal sinus is greater in subjects with GBCA leakage into the subarachnoid space compared with those without leakage. Future research regarding the histological and functional details of these parasagittal cystic structures is needed.

    Download PDF (5477K)
  • Shuhei Shibukawa, Natsuo Konta, Tetsu Niwa, Makoto Obara, Yuta Akamine ...
    Article ID: tn.2019-0172
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 13, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility for applying enhanced acceleration-selective arterial spin labeling (eAccASL) to non-electrocardiogram-gated and non-enhanced peripheral MRA. We compared eAccASL and background suppressed single shot turbo field echo (TFE)-triggered angiography non-contrast-enhanced sequence (BASS TRANCE) required electrocardiographic-gating in eight volunteers and three patients. In the volunteer study, eAccASL demonstrated a comparable arterial visualization compared with BASS TRANCE. In patient observation, the advantages with eAccASL were found in arterial visualization on the collateral vessels and without artifacts affected by arrhythmia events.

    Download PDF (4409K)
  • Toshio Ohashi, Shinji Naganawa, Saeko Iwata, Kayao Kuno
    Article ID: mp.2020-0016
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 09, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: Leakage of a small amount of intravenously administered gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space has been reported, even in healthy subjects without blood–brain barrier disruption. Several candidates including the choroid plexus and cortical veins have been proposed as the source of the leakage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of intravenously administered GBCA leakage into the CSF by comparing the contrast enhancement of the cerebral cisterns to the lateral ventricles (LVs).

    Methods: In 26 patients with a suspicion of endolymphatic hydrops (21–80 years old), a three-dimensional real inversion recovery (3D-real IR) image was obtained at pre-, and at 5 min, and 4 h post-intravenous administration of a single dose of GBCA (IV-SD-GBCA). In the 3D-real IR image, the signal intensities (SIs) in the anterior horn of the LV (LVante), the trigone of the LV (LVtri), the Sylvian fissure (SyF), the ambient cistern (Amb), the prepontine cistern (PPC), the cerebellopontine angle cistern (CPA), and the vitreous (Vit) were measured. The differences in the SI at pre-, and at 5 min and 4 h post-IV-SD-GBCA were evaluated for each region. The change in the SI pre- to post-IV-SD-GBCA (SIchange) were calculated for each region. The differences in the SIchange in each region were evaluated at 5 min and 4 h post-IV-SD-GBCA. A Steel-Dwass’s test was applied to correct for multiple comparisons.

    Results: The SIs of all regions at 4 h post-IV-SD-GBCA were significantly higher compared with pre-IV-SD-GBCA (P < 0.05). The SIchange in the SyF, Amb, PPC, and the CPA were significantly higher compared with those of the LVante, LVtri, and the Vit at 4 h post-IV-SD-GBCA (P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: The contrast enhancement in the cerebral cisterns was greater than that in the LVs.

    Download PDF (3775K)
  • Takuya Kobata, Tatsuya Yamasaki, Hiroki Katayama, Kazuo Ogawa
    Article ID: tn.2020-0014
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 08, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We evaluated the effectiveness of distortion correction using a nonrigid image registration method in diffusion-weighted imaging, comparing it with readout-segmented echo planar imaging (RS-EPI). Unlike the RS-EPI, the effectiveness of the distortion correction of the nonrigid registration method depended on the slice level, being most accurate at the level of the basal ganglia, lateral ventricle, and centrum semiovale.

    Download PDF (4385K)
  • Shohei Ouchi, Satoshi Ito
    Article ID: mp.2019-0139
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 02, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: A deep residual learning convolutional neural network (DRL-CNN) was applied to improve image quality and speed up the reconstruction of compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging. The reconstruction performances of the proposed method was compared with iterative reconstruction methods.

    Methods: The proposed method adopted a DRL-CNN to learn the residual component between the input and output images (i.e., aliasing artifacts) for image reconstruction. The CNN-based reconstruction was compared with iterative reconstruction methods. To clarify the reconstruction performance of the proposed method, reconstruction experiments using 1D-, 2D-random under-sampling and sampling patterns that mix random and non-random under-sampling were executed. The peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the structural similarity index (SSIM) were examined for various numbers of training images, sampling rates, and numbers of training epochs.

    Results: The experimental results demonstrated that reconstruction time is drastically reduced to 0.022 s per image compared with that for conventional iterative reconstruction. The PSNR and SSIM were improved as the coherence of the sampling pattern increases. These results indicate that a deep CNN can learn coherent artifacts and is effective especially for cases where the randomness of k-space sampling is rather low. Simulation studies showed that variable density non-random under-sampling was a promising sampling pattern in 1D-random under-sampling of 2D image acquisition.

    Conclusion: A DRL-CNN can recognize and predict aliasing artifacts with low incoherence. It was demonstrated that reconstruction time is significantly reduced and the improvement in the PSNR and SSIM is higher in 1D-random under-sampling than in 2D. The requirement of incoherence for aliasing artifacts is different from that for iterative reconstruction.

    Download PDF (6899K)
  • Ayami Ohno Kishimoto, Masako Kataoka, Mami Iima, Maya Honda, Kanae Kaw ...
    Article ID: mp.2020-0021
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 02, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: We aimed to investigate the performance of high resolution-diffusion-weighted imaging (HR-DWI) using readout-segmented echo-planar imaging in visualizing malignant breast lesions and evaluating their extent, using pathology as a reference.

    Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent HR-DWI with surgically confirmed malignant breast lesions. Two radiologists blinded to the final diagnosis evaluated HR-DWI independently and identified the lesions, measuring their maximum diameters. Another radiologist confirmed if those lesions were identical to the pathology. The maximum diameters of the lesions between HR-DWI and pathology were compared, and their correlations were calculated using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the lesions were measured.

    Results: Ninety-five mass/64 non-mass lesions were pathologically confirmed in 104 females. Both radiologists detected the same 93 mass lesions (97.9%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient for mass lesions were 0.89 and 0.90 (P < 0.0001 and 0001) for the two radiologists, respectively. The size differences within 10 mm were 90.3% (84/93) and 94.6% (88/93) respectively. One radiologist detected 35 non-mass lesions (54.7%) and another radiologist detected 32 non-mass lesions (50.0%), of which 28 lesions were confirmed as identical. Spearman’s correlation coefficient for non-mass lesions were 0.59 and 0.22 (P = 0.0002 and 0.22), respectively. The mean ADC value of mass lesions and non-mass lesions were 0.80 and 0.89 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively.

    Conclusion: Using HR-DWI, malignant mass lesions were depicted with excellent agreement with the pathological evaluation. Approximately half of the non-mass lesions could not be identified, suggesting a current limitation of HR-DWI.

    Download PDF (4593K)
  • Tomoko Maekawa, Kouhei Kamiya, Katsutoshi Murata, Thorsten Feiweier, M ...
    Article ID: bc.2020-0046
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 01, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The microstructural underpinnings of reduced diffusivity in transient splenial lesion remain unclear. Here, we report findings from oscillating gradient spin-echo (OGSE) diffusion imaging in a case of transient splenial lesion. Compared with normal-appearing white matter, the splenial lesion exhibited greater differences between diffusion time t = 6.5 and 35.2 ms, indicating microstructural changes occurring within the corresponding length scale. We also conducted 2D Monte-Carlo simulation. The results suggested that emergence of small and non-exchanging compartment, as often imagined in intramyelinic edema, does not fit well with the in vivo observation. Simulations with axonal swelling and microglial infiltration yielded results closer to the in vivo observations. The present report exemplifies the importance of controlling t for more specific radiological image interpretations.

    Download PDF (4920K)
  • Yasuo Takatsu, Rei Yoshida, Kenichiro Yamamura, Yuya Yamatani, Tsuyosh ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0180
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 26, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To determine which sequence for frequently used general contrast-enhanced brain MRI shows the least radiofrequency shielding effect of a titanium mesh in cranioplasty using a phantom.

    Methods: A 1.5T MRI scanner was used. Frequently used general 2D and 3D spin-echo sequences (SE) and T1 spoiled gradient echo sequences (GRE) used for MRI in clinical settings were adopted in this study. A titanium mesh was placed above a cubic phantom containing manganese chloride tetrahydrate and sodium chloride. The signal attenuation ratio and normalized absolute average deviation (NAAD) were calculated. Moreover, the flip angle (FA) dependency in SE and area of excitation dependency in 3D sequences were analyzed using NAAD.

    Results: The signal attenuation ratio at the position nearest to the titanium mesh for 2D SE was 71.8% larger than that at the position nearest to the titanium mesh for 3D GRE. With regard to NAAD, 3D GRE showed the highest values among the sequences. When FA was increased, radiofrequency shielding effect was improved. There were no significant differences between the narrow and wide area of excitation. 3D GRE showed the least radiofrequency shielding effect, and it was considered as the optimal sequence for MRI in the presence of a titanium mesh.

    Conclusion: 3D GRE shows the least radiofrequency shielding effect of a titanium mesh after cranioplasty among frequently used general sequences for contrast-enhanced brain MRI.

    Download PDF (3813K)
  • Mami Iima
    Article ID: rev.2019-0124
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 15, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Recent developments in MR hardware and software have allowed a surge of interest in intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI in oncology. Beyond diffusion-weighted imaging (and the standard apparent diffusion coefficient mapping most commonly used clinically), IVIM provides information on tissue microcirculation without the need for contrast agents. In oncology, perfusion-driven IVIM MRI has already shown its potential for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors, as well as for detecting prognostic biomarkers and treatment monitoring. Current developments in IVIM data processing, and its use as a method of scanning patients who cannot receive contrast agents, are expected to increase further utilization. This paper reviews the current applications, challenges, and future trends of perfusion-driven IVIM in oncology.

    Download PDF (4928K)
  • Yasuo Takatsu, Masafumi Nakamura, Satoshi Kobayashi, Tosiaki Miyati
    Article ID: mp.2020-0050
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 27, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To investigate whether the contrast enhancement effect in hepatobiliary phase (HBP) images can be predicted using transitional phase (3-min delay) images on liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based on the quantitative liver–spleen contrast ratio (Q-LSC) and albumin–bilirubin (ALBI) grade.

    Methods: Overall, 212 patients (124 men and 88 women; mean age 66.7 ± 11.1 years) who underwent blood tests (assessed within 1 month of performing MRI) were included; patients with diffuse tumor, hepatectomy, splenectomy, Gamna–Gandy bodies in the spleen, and movement artifacts were excluded. Q-LSC was calculated using the signal intensity of the liver divided that of the spleen. Q-LSC > 1.5 (cut-off value) indicates a relatively higher sensitivity for detecting of hepatic lesions. To predict the contrast enhancement effect in HBP using Q-LSC of 3-min delay images, Q-LSC of 10- and 15-min delay images were compared for each ALBI grade based on Q-LSC of 3-min delay images. Furthermore, to verify the accuracy of this prediction, the proportion of cases with Q-LSC > 1.5 in 10- and 15 min delay images was calculated based on Q-LSC on 3-min delay images.

    Results: The higher the Q-LSC on the 3-min delay image, the higher was the Q-LSC on its 10- and 15-min delay images. The proportion of cases with Q-LSC > 1.5 in 10- and 15-min delay images was higher for ALBI grade 1 than for ALBI grades 2 and 3 even in the same Q-LSC on 3-min delay images. Q-LSC was <1 in a 3-min delay image and <1.5 in a 15-min delay image in 62.2% of patients with ALBI grade 1 and 82.1% of patients with ALBI grades 2 and 3.

    Conclusion: The liver contrast enhancement effect in HBP images could be predicted using a 3-min delay image based on Q-LSC and ALBI grade.

    Download PDF (4726K)
  • Yasuhiko Tachibana, Tanguy Duval, Takayuki Obata
    Article ID: bc.2020-0013
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    We developed a Monte Carlo simulator for diffusion-weighted imaging sequences which displays the motion of water molecules and computes the dynamic phase dispersion due to the applied motion probing gradients. This simulator can be used to validate the analytical equations of diffusion models and understand their limitations due to their approximations. Here, we introduce the software and some specific use cases. The software can be downloaded from the following website: https://www.nirs.qst.go.jp/amr_diag.

    Download PDF (4045K)
  • Naoya Furuhashi, Shiho Okuhata, Tetsuo Kobayashi
    Article ID: mp.2019-0199
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 11, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To analyze subcortical brain volume more reliably, we propose a deep learning segmentation method of subcortical brain based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) having high generalization performance, accuracy, and robustness.

    Methods: First, local images of three-dimensional (3D) bounding boxes were extracted for seven subcortical structures (thalamus, putamen, caudate, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, and accumbens) from a whole brain MR image as inputs to the neural network. Second, dilated convolution layers, which input information of variable scope, were introduced to the blocks that make up the neural network. These blocks were connected in parallel to simultaneously process global and local information obtained by the dilated convolution layers. To evaluate generalization performance, different datasets were used for training and testing sessions (cross-dataset evaluation) because subcortical brain segmentation in clinical analysis is assumed to be applied to unknown datasets.

    Results: The proposed method showed better generalization performance that can obtain stable accuracy for all structures, whereas the state-of-the-art deep learning method obtained extremely low accuracy for some structures. The proposed method performed segmentation for all samples without failing with significantly higher accuracy (P < 0.005) than conventional methods such as 3D U-Net, FreeSurfer, and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain’s (FMRIB’s) Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool in the FMRIB Software Library (FSL-FIRST). Moreover, when applying this proposed method to larger datasets, segmentation was robustly performed for all samples without producing segmentation results on the areas that were apparently different from anatomically relevant areas. On the other hand, FSL-FIRST produced segmentation results on the area that were apparently and largely different from the anatomically relevant area for about one-third to one-fourth of the datasets.

    Conclusion: The cross-dataset evaluation showed that the proposed method is superior to existing methods in terms of generalization performance, accuracy, and robustness.

    Download PDF (4662K)
  • Yasuo Amano, Yuko Omori, Chisato Ando, Fumi Yanagisawa, Yasuyuki Suzuk ...
    Article ID: rev.2020-0007
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 11, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is valuable for diagnosis and assessment of the severity of various myocardial diseases owing to its potential to visualize myocardial scars. T1 mapping is complementary to LGE because it can quantify the degree of myocardial fibrosis or edema. As such, T1-weighted imaging techniques, including LGE using an inversion recovery sequence, contribute to cardiac MRI. T2-weighted imaging is widely used to characterize the tissue of many organs. T2-weighted imaging is used in cardiac MRI to identify myocardial edema related to chest pain, acute myocardial diseases, or severe myocardial injuries. However, it is difficult to determine the presence and extent of myocardial edema because of the low contrast between normal and diseased myocardium and image artifacts of T2-weighted images and the lack of an established method to quantify the images. T2 mapping quantifies myocardial T2 values and help identify myocardial edema. The T2 values are significantly related to the clinical symptoms or severity of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Texture analysis is a postprocessing method to quantify tissue alterations that are reflected in the T2-weighted images. Texture analysis provides a variety of parameters, such as skewness, entropy, and grey-scale non-uniformity, without the need for additional sequences. The abnormal signal intensity on T2-weighted images or T2 values may correspond to not only myocardial edema but also other tissue alterations. In this review, the techniques of cardiac T2 mapping and texture analysis and their clinical relevance are described.

    Download PDF (12499K)
  • Shigeyoshi Soga, Taro Koyama, Ayako Mikoshi, Tatsuhiko Arafune, Makoto ...
    Article ID: mp.2020-0026
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 01, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: Although androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common cause of hair loss, little is known regarding the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the AGA or scalp. This study aimed to analyze whether MRI for hair and scalp (MRH) can evaluate anatomical changes in the scalp caused by AGA.

    Methods: Twenty-seven volunteers were graded for the severity of AGA using the Hamilton–Norwood Scale (HNS), commonly used classification system. All subjects underwent MRH; two radiologists independently analyzed the images. As a quantitative measurement, the number of hair follicles was analyzed and compared with the HNS. As a qualitative analysis, each MRH scan was visually graded in terms of the severity of alopecia, using a 4-point MR severity score. The scores were compared with the HNS.

    Results: The volunteers were divided into two groups of 12 and 15 males without and with AGA at their vertex, respectively. Inter-observer agreements for the hair count and the MR severity score were excellent. The mean hair count on MRI in the normal group was significantly higher than that in the AGA group (P < 10−4). The MR severity score in the AGA group was significantly more severe than that in the control group (P < 10−4). In terms of the presence or absence of thinning hair, the MR severity score was consistent with the HNS determined by a plastic surgeon in 96% of cases. MR severity scores of clinically moderate AGA cases were significantly lower than those of severe cases (P = 0.022).

    Conclusion: MRH could depict scalp anatomy showing a clear difference between AGA and normal scalps, in both hair count and subjective visual assessment. The MR severity score was in good agreement with the clinical stages by HNS. The results support the potential of MRH as a promising imaging technique for analyzing healthy and pathological scalps.

    Download PDF (3788K)
  • Zonghao Xin, Yoshifumi Abe, Shuang Liu, Kenji F. Tanaka, Koichi Hosomi ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0156
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 17, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: Neuropathic pain is a complex and distressing chronic illness in modern medicine. Since 1990s, motor cortex stimulation (MCS) has emerged as a potential treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; however, the precise mechanisms underlying analgesia induced by MCS are not completely understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) response in the brain during MCS.

    Methods: We inserted a bipolar tungsten electrode into the primary motor cortex (M1) of adult male Wistar rats. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were implemented simultaneously with the electrical stimulation of M1 and the BOLD signals taken from the fMRI were used as an index to reflect the response against MCS.

    Results: Our results demonstrated that the bilateral M1, ipsilateral caudate-putamen, and ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex to the stimulation spot were activated after the onset of MCS. The BOLD signal time courses were analysed in these regions and similar temporal characteristics were found.

    Conclusion: By conducting direct cortical stimulation of the rodent brain to investigate its instant effect using fMRI, we identified encephalic regions directly involved in the instant motor cortical stimulation effects in healthy rat models. This result may be essential in establishing a foundation for further research on the underlying neuropathways associated with the MCS effects.

    Download PDF (3787K)
  • Shinji Naganawa, Rintaro Ito, Yutaka Kato, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiaki Tao ...
    Article ID: mp.2020-0030
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 15, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility for the detection of slight contrast effects after intravenous administration of single dose gadolinium-based contrast agent (IV-SD-GBCA), the time course of the GBCA distribution up to 24 h was examined in various fluid spaces and brain parenchyma using 3D-real IR imaging and MR fingerprinting (MRF).

    Methods: Twenty-four patients with a suspicion of endolymphatic hydrops were scanned at pre-administration and at 10 min, 4 and 24 h post-IV-SD-GBCA. 3D-real IR images and MRF at the level of the internal auditory canal were obtained. The signal intensity on the 3D-real IR image of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebellopontine angle cistern (CPA), Sylvian fissure (Syl), lateral ventricle (LV), and cochlear perilymph (CPL) was measured. The T1 and T2 values of cerebellar gray (GM) and white matter (WM) were measured using MRF. Each averaged value at the various time points was compared using an analysis of variance.

    Results: The signal intensity on the 3D-real IR image in each CSF region peaked at 4 h, and was decreased significantly by 24 h (P< 0.05). All patients had a maximum signal intensity at 4 h in the CPA, and Syl. The mean CPL signal intensity peaked at 4 h and decreased significantly by 24 h (P < 0.05). All patients but two had a maximum signal intensity at 4 h. Regarding the T1 value in the cerebellar WM and GM, the T1 value at 10 min post-IV-GBCA was significantly decreased compared to the pre-contrast scan, but no significant difference was observed at the other time points. There was no significant change in T2 in the gray or white matter at any of the time points.

    Conclusion: Time course of GBCA after IV-SD-GBCA could be evaluated by 3D-real IR imaging in CSF spaces and in the brain by MRF.

    Download PDF (3375K)
  • Yutaka Shigenaga, Daisuke Takenaka, Tomohisa Hashimoto, Takayuki Ishid ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0161
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 07, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: The combination of modified Dixon (mDixon) and periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction sequence with two interleaved echoes, which promotes uniform fat-suppression and motion insensitivity, has recently become available for commercial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. To compare the robustness of this combination sequence with that of standard Cartesian mDixon sequence for fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging in clinical head and neck MRI.

    Methods: Fifty patients with head and neck tumors were involved this study. All patients underwent MRI using both the combination and standard sequences. Two radiologists independently scored motion artifacts and water–fat separation error using a 4-point scale (1, unacceptable; 4, excellent). Furthermore, comprehensive comparative evaluation was performed using a 5-point scale (1, substantially inferior; 5, substantially superior). Data were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

    Results: In the motion artifact assessment, ratings of 3 or 4 points were assigned to 45% (observer-1, 58.0%; observer-2, 32.0%) and 97% (100%; 94.0%) of images for the standard and combination sequences, respectively (P < 0.001). For the water–fat separation error assessment, ratings of 3 or 4 points were assigned to 100% (100%; 100%) and 85% (84.0%; 86.0%) of images, respectively (P < 0.001). In the comprehensive evaluation, of the 100 cases (observer-1, 50; observer-2, 50), 96 were rated at four or five points. In cases with slight or no motion artifacts and water–fat separation errors, the combination sequence was superior to the standard sequence in term of noise and sharpness, and equal in terms of contrast.

    Conclusion: Although water–fat separation errors increased significantly in the combination sequence, most of these were acceptable. The significantly decreased motion artifacts in the combination sequence significantly improved image quality overall.

    Download PDF (2861K)
  • Tomohiko Horie, Nao Kajihara, Haruo Saito, Shuhei Shibukawa, Makoto Ob ...
    Article ID: tn.2019-0171
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 18, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    The feasibility of the 3D dynamic improved motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium steady-state free precession (3D dynamic iMSDE SSFP) was evaluated for visualizing CSF motion and the appropriate parameters were determined. Both flow phantom and volunteer studies revealed that linear ordering and the shortest acquisition duration time were optimal. 3D dynamic iMSDE SSFP provides good quality imaging of CSF motion in the whole brain and enables visualization of flow in arbitrary planes from a single 3D volume scan.

    Download PDF (3512K)
  • Yoshifumi Noda, Satoshi Goshima, Keita Fujimoto, Yuta Akamine, Kimihir ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0151
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 12, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic value of mono-exponential, bi-exponential, and stretched exponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for differentiating benign and malignant hepatic lesions.

    Methods: This prospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board and the patients provided written informed consent. Magnetic resonance imaging was acquired for 56 patients with suspected liver disease. This identified 90 focal liver lesions with a maximum diameter >10 mm, of which 47 were benign and 43 were malignant. Using home-built software, two radiologists measured the DWI parameters of hepatic lesions for three models: the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from a mono-exponential model; the true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) from a bi-exponential model; and the distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index (α) from a stretched exponential model. The parameters were compared between benign and malignant hepatic lesions.

    Results: ADC, D, D*, f, and DDC values were significantly lower for malignant hepatic lesions than for benign lesions (P < 0.0001–0.03). Although logistic regression analysis demonstrated that DDC was the only statistically significant parameter for differentiating benign and malignant lesions (P = 0.039), however, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for differentiating benign and malignant lesions were comparable between ADC (0.98) and DDC (0.98) values.

    Conclusion: DDC values obtained from the stretched exponential model could be also used as a quantitative imaging biomarker for differentiating benign and malignant hepatic lesions, however, the diagnostic performance was comparable with ADC values.

    Download PDF (3551K)
  • Naoko Mori, Shunji Mugikura, Minoru Miyashita, Yu Mori, Yui Maekawa, T ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0195
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 06, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To compare the image quality between turbo spin-echo (TSE)-diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and single-shot echo-planar imaging (EPI)-DWI, and to verify the diagnostic performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameters of the two techniques by using histogram analysis in terms of differentiation between ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) lesions.

    Methods: Ninety-four women with 94 lesions diagnosed as breast cancer by surgery underwent IRB-approved preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, including TSE and EPI-DWI with b-values of 50 and 850 s/mm2. Twenty lesions were identified as DCIS and 74 as IDC. Image quality [signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and geometric distortion] was evaluated quantitatively and compared between the TSE and EPI-DWI. A histogram analysis of the entire tumor voxel-based ADC data was performed, and the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentile values of each technique were compared between DCIS and IDC lesions.

    Results: The SNR and CNR of TSE-DWI were significantly higher than those of EPI-DWI (P < 0.0001 and < 0.0001). The geometric distortion of TSE-DWI was significantly lower than that of EPI-DWI (P < 0.0001). In TSE-DWI, the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile values were significantly different between the DCIS and IDC lesions (P = 0.0010, 0.0004, 0.0008, and 0.0044, respectively). In EPI-DWI, the 50th and 75th percentile values were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.0009 and 0.0093). There was no significant difference in the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic analysis of the 10th, 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile values of TSE-DWI, and the 50th and 75th percentile values of EPI-DWI (P = 0.29).

    Conclusion: The image quality of TSE-DWI was better than that of EPI-DWI. DCIS lesions were distinguished from IDC lesions with a wider range of percentile values in TSE-DWI than in EPI-DWI, although diagnostic performance was not significantly different between the techniques.

    Download PDF (3417K)
  • Sachi Hisanaga, Takatoshi Aoki, Shohei Shimajiri, Akitaka Fujisaki, To ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0201
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 06, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To correlate peritumoral fat content using iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) with histologic prognostic factors in breast carcinoma.

    Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 patients who were diagnosed with invasive carcinoma of breast and underwent breast MRI including IDEAL before surgery. The scan time of IDEAL fat fraction (FF) map imaging was 33 s. Four regions of interests (ROIs), which are a distance of 5 mm from the tumor edge, and one ROI in the mammary fat of the healthy side were set on the FF map. Then average peritumoral FF values (FFt), average FF values in the healthy side (FFh), and peritumoral fat ratio (pTFR: defined as FFt/FFh) were calculated. Histologically, the presence of lymph node metastasis and the MIB-1 index were evaluated.

    Results: FFt and pTFR for breast carcinoma with lymph node metastasis (79.27 ± 10.36 and 0.897 ± 0.078) were significantly lower than those without (86.23 ± 4.53 and 0.945 ± 0.032) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005). Spearman rank correlation suggested that the FFt correlated with the MIB-1 index (r = −340, P = 0.001).

    Conclusion: Quantification of peritumoral fat using IDEAL-iron quantification is associated with the histologic prognostic factors, and may be a practical tool for therapeutic strategy of breast carcinoma.

    Download PDF (3725K)
  • Motohide Kawamura, Daiki Tamada, Satoshi Funayama, Marie-Luise Kromrey ...
    Article ID: tn.2019-0081
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 06, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To accelerate high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging with a multi-shot echo-planar sequence, we propose an approach based on reduced averaging and deep learning. Denoising convolutional neural networks can reduce amplified noise without requiring extensive averaging, enabling shorter scan times and high image quality. The preliminary experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed denoising method over state-of-the-art methods such as the widely used block-matching and 3D filtering.

    Download PDF (3516K)
  • Seiya Kishi, Masayuki Maeda, Ryota Kogue, Maki Umino, Toshio Matsubara ...
    Article ID: ici.2020-0011
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 04, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Hemangioblastomas of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) that emerge extra-axially from the peripheral nervous system are extremely rare. We report a case of hemangioblastoma of the CPA evaluated by pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL). The high rate of tumor blood flow determined using pCASL provided additional useful information for the differential diagnosis of the CPA tumors in this patient.

    Download PDF (2467K)
  • Manabu Kinoshita, Masato Uchikoshi, Mio Sakai, Yonehiro Kanemura, Haru ...
    Article ID: bc.2019-0196
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 27, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) mismatch sign is now known to be a specific yet insensitive image feature for IDH-mutant, 1p19q non-codeleted astrocytoma. The current study revealed that lesion presenting T2-FLAIR mismatch exhibited extremely long T1- and T2-relaxation time while T2-FLAIR matched lesions showed low to moderate values. On the other hand, IDH-wildtype tumors presented noticeably short T1- and T2-relaxation time. These different relaxation time characteristics seemed to render T2-FLAIR mismatch sign of becoming such a unique and specific image feature for IDH-mutant, 1p19q non-codeleted astrocytoma.

    Download PDF (5000K)
  • Shintaro Ichikawa, Utaroh Motosugi, Hiroyuki Morisaka, Kazuto Kozaka, ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0193
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 27, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To determine the optimal combination of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to compare its diagnostic ability to that of dynamic computed tomography (CT) in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Methods: This multi-institutional study consisted of two parts: Study 1, a retrospective study to determine the optimal combination of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI findings (decision tree and logistic model) to distinguish HCC (n = 199) from benign (n = 81) or other malignant lesions (n = 95) (375 nodules in 269 patients) and Study 2, a prospective study to compare the diagnostic ability of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI to distinguish HCC (n = 73) from benign (n = 15) or other malignant lesions (n = 12) with that of dynamic CT (100 nodules in 83 patients). Two radiologists independently evaluated the imaging findings (Study 1 and 2) and made a practical diagnosis (Study 2).

    Results: In Study 1, rim or whole enhancement on arterial phase images, signal intensities on T2-weighted/diffusion-weighted/portal venous/transitional/hepatobiliary phase images, and signal drop on opposed-phase images were independently useful for differential diagnosis. In Study 2, the accuracy, sensitivity, negative predictive value, and negative likelihood ratio of the CT decision tree (reader 2) were higher than those of MRI Model 2 (P = 0.015–0.033). There were no other significant differences in diagnostic ability (P = 0.059–1.000) and radiologist-made practical diagnosis (P = 0.059–1.000) between gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI and CT.

    Conclusion: We identified the optimal combination of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI findings for HCC diagnosis. However, its diagnostic ability was not superior to that of dynamic CT.

    Download PDF (4453K)
  • Koichi Oshio, Masao Yui, Seiko Shimizu, Shinya Yamada
    Article ID: mp.2019-0138
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 19, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: Although there is no lymphatic system in the central nervous system (CNS), there seems to be a mechanism to remove macro molecules from the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) are thought to be parts of this pathway, but the details are not known. In this study, MR signal of the extracellular water was decomposed into components with distinct T2’s, to obtain some information about distribution of waste material in the brain.

    Methods: Images were acquired using a Curr, Purcell, Meiboom, Gill (CPMG) imaging sequence. In order to reduce T1 contamination and the signal oscillation, hard pulses were used as refocusing pulses. The signal was then decomposed into many T2 components using non-negative least squares (NNLS) in pixel-by-pixel basis. Finally, a color map was generated by assigning different color for each T2 component, then adding them together.

    Results: From the multi-echo images, it was possible to decompose the decaying signal into separate T2 components. By adjusting the color table to create the color map, it is possible to visualize the extracellular water distribution, as well as their T2 values. Several observation points include: (1) CSF inside ventricles has very long T2 (~2 s), and seems to be relatively homogeneous, (2) subarachnoid CSF also have long T2, but there are short T2 component at the brain surface, at the surface of dura, at the blood vessels in the subarachnoid space, etc., (3) in the brain parenchyma, short T2 components (longer than intracellular component but shorter than CSF) exists along the white matter, in the choroid plexus, etc. These can be considered as distribution of macromolecules (waste materials) in the brain.

    Conclusion: From T2 component analysis it is possible to obtain some insight into pathways for the transport of large molecules in the CNS, where no lymphatic system is present.

    Download PDF (4144K)
  • Ryo Kuwahara, Aki Kido, Ryo Yajima, Naoko Nishio, Kyoko Nakao, Yasuhis ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0153
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 19, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of microcystic, elongated and fragmented (MELF) pattern invasion on preoperative evaluation of lymph node (LN) metastasis and myometrial invasion in patients with low-grade endometrial carcinoma.

    Methods: The study included 192 consecutive patients with low-grade endometrial carcinoma who underwent preoperative computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), followed by surgery. One hundred sixty one of 192 patients underwent LN dissection and were analyzed for LN metastasis. All patients were analyzed for myometrial invasion. Presence of enlarged LN was evaluated by using size criteria on CT. Depth of myometrial invasion was evaluated on MRI using T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging comprehensively. Sensitivity and specificity for LN metastasis and deep myometrial invasion were evaluated for MELF group and non-MELF group. The difference of sensitivity between two groups was compared using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test.

    Results: MELF pattern invasion was identified in 43/192 patients (22%). LN metastases were observed in 18/39 patients in MELF group and 6/122 patients in non-MELF group for pelvic LN and 11/29 patients in MELF group and 4/57 patients in non-MELF group for para-aortic LN. Sensitivity for the detection of pelvic LN metastasis in MELF group was significantly lower than in non-MELF group (16.7% vs 66.7%). As for the assessment of the deep myometiral invasion, pathological deep myometrial invasion were found in 31/43 patients in MELF group and 32/149 patients in non-MELF group. Sensitivity in MELF group showed lower values than in non-MELF group (54.8% vs 78.1% for reader 1, 54.8% vs 62.5% for reader 2), although there was no statistically significant difference (P = 0.09 for reader 1 and P = 0.72 for reader 2).

    Conclusion: In case of low-grade endometrial carcinoma with MELF pattern invasion, preoperative staging by CT and MRI have a risk for underestimation.

    Download PDF (3215K)
  • Masami Goto, Akifumi Hagiwara, Shohei Fujita, Masaaki Hori, Koji Kamag ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0154
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 19, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the detectability of brain volume change in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with gray matter images is affected by mild white matter lesions (MWLs).

    Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional T1-weighted images (3D-T1WIs) of 11 healthy subjects were obtained using a 3T MR scanner. We initially created 3D-T1WIs with focal cortical atrophy simulated cortical atrophy in left amygdala (type A) and the left medial frontal lobe (type B) from control 3D-T1WIs. Next, the following three types of MWL images were created: type A + 1L and type B + 1L images, only one white matter lesion; type A + 4L and type B + 4L images, four white matter lesions at distant positions; and type A + 4L* and type B + 4L* images, four white matter lesions at clustered positions. Comparisons between the control group and the other groups were performed with VBM using segmented gray matter images.

    Results: The gray matter volume was significantly lower in the type A group than in the control group, and similar results were observed in the type A + 1L, type A + 4L, and type A + 4L* groups. Additionally, the gray matter volume was significantly lower in the type B group than in the control group, and similar results were observed in the type B + 1L, type B + 4L, and type B + 4L* groups, but the cluster size in type B + 4L* was smaller than that in type B.

    Conclusion: Our study showed that the detectability of brain volume change in VBM with gray matter images was not decreased by MWLs as lacunar infarctions. Therefore, we think that group comparisons with VBM should be analyzed by groups including and excluding subjects with MWLs, respectively.

    Download PDF (4484K)
  • Midori Kusama, Noriko Sato, Yukio Kimura, Kenji Miyagi
    Article ID: tn.2019-0167
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 19, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Not only magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) pulse, but also chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse would be a useful additional one for shortening the scan time of neuromelanin imaging. We compared three sequences among turbo-spin echo (TSE) images with CHESS, MTC, and without an additional pulse in the same short time, 3 min 20 s. The TSE with CHESS image was the most useful for the diagnosis of neuromelanin within the limited time.

    Download PDF (2680K)
  • Mitsuo Matsumoto, Kyoshiro Takegahara, Tatsuya Inoue, Masatoki Nakaza, ...
    Article ID: ici.2019-0142
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 13, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    We present the case of a 76-year-old woman who underwent left upper lobectomy for lung adenocarcinoma. Three days after the surgery, a thrombus was observed in the pulmonary vein (PV) stump. Four months after the surgery, we performed 4D flow MRI, which revealed decreased blood flow, not only in the left superior PV stump, but also over a widespread region around the left atrium-left superior PV junction. 4D flow MRI can clarify the altered hemodynamics underlying thrombus formation.

    Download PDF (3071K)
  • Nobuhiro Fujita, Akihiro Nishie, Yoshiki Asayama, Kousei Ishigami, Tom ...
    Article ID: tn.2019-0183
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 13, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We evaluated the changes of gadoxetic acid uptake of the liver parenchyma after hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication by direct-antiviral agent (DAA) therapy. The increase rate of the liver-to-muscle signal intensity ratio, the skewness and the kurtosis were calculated in the hepatobiliary phase. After sustained virological response, gadoxetic acid uptake of the liver parenchyma increased, but became heterogeneous. Our study proved that HCV eradication by DAA therapy could significantly affect gadoxetic acid uptake.

    Download PDF (3031K)
  • Shinji Naganawa, Rintaro Ito, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiaki Taoka, Tadao Yos ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0182
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: February 06, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: It has been reported previously that intravenously administered gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) leaks into the subarachnoid space around the cortical veins at 4 h after injection in all old people over 37 years, but not in younger people up to 37 years of age in 3D-real IR images. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was a strict threshold of 37 years of age for the leakage of the GBCA into the subarachnoid space.

    Methods: The subjects included 190 patients, that were scanned for 3D-real IR images at 4 hours after intravenous injection of GBCA as a diagnostic test for endolymphatic hydrops. The patient’s age ranged from 14 to 81 years. Two experienced neuroradiologists evaluated the images to determine whether the GBCA leakage around the cortical veins was positive or negative. Any discrepancies between the two observers were discussed and a consensus was obtained.

    A Mann–Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used to compare the positive and the negative group and to set the age cut-off value for the prediction of GBCA leakage.

    Results: The GBCA leakage around the cortical veins was negative in 35 patients and positive in 155 patients. The average age was 33 ± 11 years in the negative group, and 55 ± 12 years in the positive group (P < 0.01). In the ROC analysis for the age and leakage of the GBCA, an area under the curve was 0.905 and the cut-off age was 37.317 years (sensitivity of 0.942 and specificity of 0.771).

    Conclusion: Intravenously administered GBCA leaks into the subarachnoid space around the cortical veins in most patients over 37 years of age. However, it should be noted that it can be found occasionally in patients under 37 years of age.

    Download PDF (3020K)
  • Masataka Sugiyama, Yasuo Takehara, Masanori Kawate, Naoki Ooishi, Masa ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0089
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 31, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: 2D cine phase contrast (PC)-MRI is a standard velocimetry for the superior mesenteric artery (SMA); however, the optimal localization of the measurement plane has never been fully discussed previously. The purpose of this Institutional Review Board approved prospective and single arm study is to test whether flow velocimetry of the SMA with combined use of 2D cine PC-MRI and meal challenge is dependent on the localizations of the measurement planes and to seek optimal section for velocimetry.

    Methods: Seven healthy volunteers underwent cardiac phase resolved ECG gated 2D cine PC-MRI pre- and 30 min post-meal challenge at three measurement planes: proximal, curved mid section and distal straight section of the SMA at 3T. 4D Flow using 3D cine PC-MRI with vastly undersampled isotropic projection imaging (PC VIPR) was also performed right after 2D cine PC-MRI to delineate the flow dynamics within the SMA using streamline analysis. Two radiologists measured flow velocities, and rated the appearances of the abnormal flow in the SMA on streamlines derived from the 4D Flow and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

    Results: 2D cine PC-MRI measured increased temporally averaged flow velocity (mm/s) after the meal challenge only in the proximal (129.3 vs. 97.8, P = 0.0313) and distal section (166.9 vs. 96.2, P = 0.0313), not in the curved mid section (113.1 vs. 85.5, P = 0.0625). The average velocities were highest and their standard errors (8.5–26.5) were smallest at the distal straight section both before and after the meal challenge as compared with other sections. The streamline analysis depicted more frequent appearances of vertical or helical flow in the curved mid section both on 4D Flow and CFD (κ: 0.27–0.68).

    Conclusion: SMA velocimetry with 2D cine PC-MRI was dependent on the localization of the measurement planes. Distal straight section, not in the curved mid section is recommended for MR velocimetry.

    Download PDF (3880K)
  • Akiko Ohki, Shigeyoshi Saito, Eri Hirayama, Yusuke Takahashi, Yuko Oga ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0128
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 31, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) on the ischemic regions in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in comparison with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using a 7T-MRI.

    Methods: We used neonatal rats (n = 8), aged 8 days, to clarify the progression of HIE. The rat model of HIE was developed by ligating and severing the left common carotid artery, followed by 45 minutes of recovery, and 60 minutes of hypoxia (8% O2/92% N2; 34°C). At 0–2 and 24 hours after the onset of HIE, CEST imaging, DWI, and MRS were performed with a 7T-MRI. The magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) asymmetry curves and four MTR asymmetry maps at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.5 ppm were calculated using the CEST images. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated by DWI, and brain metabolites were assessed by MRS.

    Results: In the ischemic regions of neonatal rats, FA was significantly increased at 0–2 hours and decreased at 24 hours after the onset of HIE. ADC in the ipsilateral side was significantly lower than that of contralateral side. All rats with HIE showed hypointense areas on MTR asymmetry maps (2.0 and 3.5 ppm), that did not correspond with the hyperintense areas on DWI. In addition, a significant increase in lactate levels was observed at 0–2 and 24 hours after the onset of HIE.

    Conclusion: CEST MTR maps did not correspond with the hyperintense areas on DWI at 0–2 and 24 hours after the onset of HIE. The change of multi offset CEST signal may be primarily related to the brain metabolites and pH alterations, such as that caused by lactate, after the onset of HIE.

    Download PDF (4482K)
  • Ryusuke Irie, Yujiro Otsuka, Akifumi Hagiwara, Koji Kamagata, Kouhei K ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0106
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 22, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are geriatric diseases and common causes of dementia. Recently, many studies on the segmentation, disease detection, or classification of MRI using deep learning have been conducted. The aim of this study was to differentiate iNPH and AD using a residual extraction approach in the deep learning method.

    Methods: Twenty-three patients with iNPH, 23 patients with AD and 23 healthy controls were included in this study. All patients and volunteers underwent brain MRI with a 3T unit, and we used only whole-brain three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted images. We designed a fully automated, end-to-end 3D deep learning classifier to differentiate iNPH, AD and control. We evaluated the performance of our model using a leave-one-out cross-validation test. We also evaluated the validity of the result by visualizing important areas in the process of differentiating AD and iNPH on the original input image using the Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping (Grad-CAM) technique.

    Results: Twenty-one out of 23 iNPH cases, 19 out of 23 AD cases and 22 out of 23 controls were correctly diagnosed. The accuracy was 0.90. In the Grad-CAM heat map, brain parenchyma surrounding the lateral ventricle was highlighted in about half of the iNPH cases that were successfully diagnosed. The medial temporal lobe or inferior horn of the lateral ventricle was highlighted in many successfully diagnosed cases of AD. About half of the successful cases showed nonspecific heat maps.

    Conclusions: Residual extraction approach in a deep learning method achieved a high accuracy for the differential diagnosis of iNPH, AD, and healthy controls trained with a small number of cases.

    Download PDF (5898K)
  • Marie-Luise Kromrey, Hiroaki Kise, Junji Hirose, Masashi Yoshizawa, Ta ...
    Article ID: ici.2019-0109
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 17, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    We present multimodal imaging in the rare case of isolated unilateral pulmonary vein atresia in a 6 year-old boy, including analysis of hemodynamics by magnetic resonance acquisition technique of time-resolved three-dimensional phase contrast imaging (4D flow magnetic resonance imaging). This novel imaging method enables the quantification and especially comprehensive visualization of blood flow patterns, even in complex congenital anomalies which abducted detailed assessment so far, and therefore constitutes a promising alternative to conventional vascular imaging techniques.

    Download PDF (3200K)
  • Roshani Perera, Haruo Isoda, Kenta Ishiguro, Takashi Mizuno, Yasuo Tak ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0107
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 17, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: Evaluate in vivo hemodynamic and morphological biomarkers of intracranial aneurysms, using magnetic resonance fluid dynamics (MRFD) and MR-based patient specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in order to assess the risk of rupture.

    Methods: Forty-eight intracranial aneurysms (10 ruptured, 38 unruptured) were scrutinized for six morphological and 10 hemodynamic biomarkers. Morphological biomarkers were calculated based on 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D TOF MRA) in MRFD analysis. Hemodynamic biomarkers were assessed using both MRFD and CFD analyses. MRFD was performed using 3D TOF MRA and 3D cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (3D cine PC MRI). CFD was performed utilizing patient specific inflow–outflow boundary conditions derived from 3D cine PC MRI. Univariate analysis was carried out to identify statistically significant biomarkers for aneurysm rupture and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed for the significant biomarkers. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictive biomarkers.

    Results: Morphological biomarker analysis revealed that aneurysm size [P = 0.021], volume [P = 0.035] and size ratio [P = 0.039] were statistically significantly different between the two groups. In hemodynamic biomarker analysis, MRFD results indicated that ruptured aneurysms had higher oscillatory shear index (OSI) [OSI.max, P = 0.037] and higher relative residence time (RRT) [RRT.ave, P = 0.035] compared with unruptured aneurysms. Correspondingly CFD analysis demonstrated significant differences for both average and maximum OSI [OSI.ave, P = 0.008; OSI.max, P = 0.01] and maximum RRT [RRT.max, P = 0.045]. ROC analysis revealed AUC values greater than 0.7 for all significant biomarkers. Aneurysm volume [AUC, 0.718; 95% CI, 0.491–0.946] and average OSI obtained from CFD [AUC, 0.774; 95% CI, 0.586–0.961] were retained in the respective logistic regression models.

    Conclusion: Both morphological and hemodynamic biomarkers have significant influence on intracranial aneurysm rupture. Aneurysm size, volume, size ratio, OSI and RRT could be potential biomarkers to assess aneurysm rupture risk.

    Download PDF (3638K)
  • Yasuo Amano, Yuko Omori, Fumi Yanagisawa, Chisato Ando, Naoki Shinoda, ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0166
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: January 17, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: Modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) using a 5s(3s)3s scheme is robust to tachycardia, but some errors are occasionally observed in myocardial T1 mapping. We sought to evaluate the relationship between measurement errors in T1 mapping and heart rate (HR) using a confidence map.

    Methods: We enrolled 69 male patients with normal native T1 values of the septal myocardium measured by a 5s(3s)3s MOLLI. The degree of measurement errors in the septal myocardium was assessed by two independent observers on a confidence map using a 4-point scale: 0, no errors; 1, errors located on the myocardial contour; 2, errors extended into the myocardial contour; and 3, errors extended into the midwall. We compared the scores of measurement errors and the average, maximum, minimum or variability of the HR indicated during the MOLLI scan (iHR), image phases of MOLLI or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).

    Results: Patients with score >1 for the septal myocardium had significantly lower minimum iHR than those with a score ≤1 (P < 0.01; 49.8 ± 10.1 vs. 59.6 ± 9.7 beat per min).

    Conclusion: The confidence map shows more measurement errors in patients with lower minimum iHR. The myocardial T1 values should be measured carefully in patients with bradycardia during MOLLI scanning.

    Download PDF (3315K)
  • Yasuhiko Tachibana, Akifumi Hagiwara, Masaaki Hori, Jeff Kershaw, Misa ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0075
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: A current algorithm to obtain a synthetic myelin volume fraction map (SyMVF) from rapid simultaneous relaxometry imaging (RSRI) has a potential problem, that it does not incorporate information from surrounding pixels. The purpose of this study was to develop a method that utilizes a convolutional neural network (CNN) to overcome this problem.

    Methods: RSRI and magnetization transfer images from 20 healthy volunteers were included. A CNN was trained to reconstruct RSRI-related metric maps into a myelin volume-related index (generated myelin volume index: GenMVI) map using the MVI map calculated from magnetization transfer images (MTMVI) as reference. The SyMVF and GenMVI maps were statistically compared by testing how well they correlated with the MTMVI map. The correlations were evaluated based on: (i) averaged values obtained from 164 atlas-based ROIs, and (ii) pixel-based comparison for ROIs defined in four different tissue types (cortical and subcortical gray matter, white matter, and whole brain).

    Results: For atlas-based ROIs, the overall correlation with the MTMVI map was higher for the GenMVI map than for the SyMVF map. In the pixel-based comparison, correlation with the MTMVI map was stronger for the GenMVI map than for the SyMVF map, and the difference in the distribution for the volunteers was significant (Wilcoxon sign-rank test, P < 0.001) in all tissue types.

    Conclusion: The proposed method is useful, as it can incorporate more specific information about local tissue properties than the existing method. However, clinical validation is necessary.

    Download PDF (4142K)
  • Neil J. Stewart, Shingo Matsumoto
    Article ID: rev.2019-0094
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: December 27, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Since the first pioneering report of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the Warburg effect in prostate cancer patients, clinical dissemination of the technique has been rapid; close to 10 sites worldwide now possess a polarizer fit for the clinic, and more than 30 clinical trials, predominantly for oncological applications, are already registered on the US and European clinical trials databases. Hyperpolarized 13C probes to study pathophysiological processes beyond the Warburg effect, including tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism, intra-cellular pH and cellular necrosis have also been demonstrated in the preclinical arena and are pending clinical translation, and the simultaneous injection of multiple co-polarized agents is opening the door to high-sensitivity, multi-functional molecular MRI with a single dose. Here, we review the biomedical applications to date of the two polarization methods that have been used for in vivo hyperpolarized 13C molecular MRI; namely, dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization and parahydrogen-induced polarization. The basic concept of hyperpolarization and the fundamental theory underpinning these two key 13C hyperpolarization methods, along with recent technological advances that have facilitated biomedical realization, are also covered.

    Download PDF (6295K)
  • Yuriko Suzuki, Noriyuki Fujima, Matthias J.P. van Osch
    Article ID: rev.2019-0096
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: November 22, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In the 1980’s some of the earliest studies of arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI have demonstrated its ability to generate MR angiography (MRA) images. Thanks to many technical improvements, ASL has been successfully moving its position from the realm of research into the clinical area, albeit more known as perfusion imaging than as MRA. For MRA imaging, other techniques such as time-of-flight, phase contrast MRA and contrast-enhanced (CE) MRA are more popular choices for clinical applications. In the last decade, however, ASL-MRA has been experiencing a remarkable revival, especially because of its non-invasive nature, i.e. the fact that it does not rely on the use of contrast agent. Very importantly, there are additional benefits of using ASL for MRA. For example, its higher flexibility to achieve both high spatial and temporal resolution than CE dynamic MRA, and the capability of vessel specific visualization, in which the vascular tree arising from a selected artery can be exclusively visualized. In this article, the implementation and recent developments of ASL-based MRA are discussed; not only focusing on the basic sequences based upon pulsed ASL or pseudo-continuous ASL, but also including more recent labeling approaches, such as vessel-selective labeling, velocity-selective ASL, vessel-encoded ASL and time-encoded ASL. Although these ASL techniques have been already utilized in perfusion imaging and their usefulness has been suggested by many studies, some additional considerations should be made when employing them for MRA, since there is something more than the difference of the spatial resolution of the readout sequence. Moreover, extensive discussion is included on what readout sequence to use, especially by highlighting how to achieve high spatial resolution while keeping scan-time reasonable such that the ASL-MRA sequence can easily be included into a clinical examination.

    Download PDF (13758K)
  • Marie-Luise Kromrey, Satoshi Funayama, Daiki Tamada, Shintaro Ichikawa ...
    Article ID: mp-2019-0122
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 24, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Purpose: To compare the image quality of three-dimensional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) acquired with respiratory triggering against breath-hold 3D MRCP with compressed sensing (CS) and parallel imaging (PI) in a clinical setting.

    Methods: This study included 93 patients (45 men, mean age: 69.7 ± 9.3 years), in whom three types of 3D MRCP were performed: 3D breath-hold MRCP with CS and PI reconstruction (BH-CS-MRCP) and PI only reconstruction (BH-PI-MRCP) additionally to 3D respiratory triggered MRCP with navigator echoes (Nav-MRCP). Duct visualization and overall image quality were blindly evaluated on a four-point scale by two independent radiologists. Quantitative analysis was performed by calculating the relative duct-to-periductal contrast (RC) of three main biliary segments. Comparison between the methods was performed using paired t-test.

    Results: Acquisition time was 23 s for both breath-hold MRCP protocols and 1 min 29 s for Nav-MRCP. Mean grading (Nav/CS/PI) for common bile duct (2.74/2.87/2.94), common hepatic duct (2.82/2.92/3.00), central right hepatic duct (2.75/2.85/2.98), central left hepatic duct (2.75/2.85/2.92) and cystic duct (2.22/2.34/2.42) was higher in BH-CS- and BH-PI-MRCP, whereas Nav-MRCP showed higher grading in the peripheral segments (peripheral right hepatic duct: 2.24/2.01/2.12; peripheral left hepatic duct: 2.23/2.02/2.13). Overall image quality of Nav-MRCP (2.91 ± 0.7) was not different from BH-PI-MRCP (2.92 ± 0.6) (P = 0.163), but higher than BH-CS-MRCP (2.80 ± 0.7) (P = 0.031). Quantitative analysis showed lower RC values for CS- and PI-MRCP than Nav-MRCP (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: Breath-hold 3D MRCP were feasible using PI and CS. Visualization of the greater ductal system was even superior in breath-hold MRCP than in Nav-MRCP by considerably reducing acquisition time. Both breath-hold methods are suitable for revised MRI protocols notably in patients with irregular respiratory cycle.

    Download PDF (2623K)
  • Masaki Ogawa, Motoo Nakagawa, Nobuyuki Arai, Hirohito Kan, Shota Ohba, ...
    Article ID: tn-2019-0115
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 24, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We prospectively evaluated thin-slice coronal turbo spin-echo (TSE) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) covering a larger area with the recently-developed techniques on a 3T MRI scanner, compared with echo-planar imaging (EPI)-DWI in patients undergoing routine hand MRI. Visual score assessment and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement were performed for patients with suspected hand tumors. TSE-DWI was superior to EPI-DWI, with less image distortion. The visual score and ADC comparison assessments proved that the image noise of TSE-DWI was acceptable.

    Download PDF (3079K)
  • Yoshiko Matsubara, Toru Higaki, Chihiro Tani, Shogo Kamioka, Kuniaki H ...
    Article ID: mp.2019-0105
    Published: 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: October 15, 2019
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Purpose: CT is a useful modality for the evaluation of fetal skeletal dysplasia but radiation exposure is unavoidable. The purpose of this study is to compare the usefulness of MRI and CT for evaluating the fetal skeletal shape.

    Methods: This study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. Fetal specimens (n = 14) were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner using our newly-developed sequence. It is based on T2*-weighted imaging (TR, 12 ms; TE for opposed-phase imaging, 6.1 ms, for in-phase imaging, 7.3 ms; flip angle, 40°). The specimens were also scanned on a 320 detector-row CT scanner. Four radiologists visually graded and compared the visibility of the bone shape of eight regions on MRI- and CT-scans using a 5-point grading system.

    Results: The diagnostic ability of MRI with respect to the 5th metacarpals, femur, fibula, and pelvis was superior to CT (all, P < 0.050); there was no significant difference in the evaluation results of observers with respect to the cervical and lumbar spine, and the 5th metatarsal (0.058 ≤ P ≤ 1.000). However, the diagnostic ability of MRI was significantly inferior to CT for the assessment of the bone shape of the thoracic spine (observers A and C: P = 0.002, observers B and D: P = 0.001).

    Conclusion: The MRI method we developed represents a potential alternative to CT imaging for the evaluation of the fetal bone structure.

    Download PDF (3803K)
feedback
Top