Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), a phloem-limited Gram-negative bacterium, is associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB), which is one of the most destructive diseases currently threatening citrus production worldwide. No effective treatment for HLB is currently available. Effective prevention and control in the initial stage can block the spread and disease progression of HLB. Herein, we developed a co-detection assay for the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA of CLas, the sensitivity of the co-detection assay was significantly increased over that of the single CLas DNA detection system. Beyond this, we found that the co-detection assay was a better fit to the root samples with higher population abundance than the previous reported detection system because it has a better specificity. Moreover, we found that the contents of 16S rRNA of CLas in citrus roots and fruits are significantly higher than that in leaves, which suggests that the time of HLB diagnosis is probably earlier by using these special tissues and the replication of CLas may become more active in these tissues, further suggested that the significance of study the mechanism of infection, prevention and control of HLB staring from these tissues.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruits are known to contain few carotenoids such as β-carotene, which are abundant in congener tomato fruits. In a previous study, we introduced a fruit-specific EEF48 gene promoter-driven crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase (PSY) of Erwinia uredovora into eggplant ‘Senryo No. 2’. The transgenic plants grown in a greenhouse set fruits that accumulated β-carotene (∼1.67 µg g−1FW) in the T0 and T1 generations. In the present study, we grew T1 and T2 generations of the transgenic eggplant plants in artificial climate chambers to investigate their fruit set and β-carotene accumulation. No clear difference in β-carotene accumulation was observed in the fruit of transgenic plants grown under either HID (high-intensity discharge) or LED (light-emitting diode) light, or between T1 and T2 generations. The β-carotene accumulation (8.83 µg g−1FW on average) was approximately 5 times higher than the previous results obtained from greenhouse-grown plants. However, the fruit weight and size of the T-DNA (+) plants were significantly smaller than that of their null-segregant T-DNA (−) plants derived from the same line, suggesting that β-carotene accumulation may inhibit fruit development. Considering that a part of plants grown under LED irradiation failed to set fruits or set smaller fruits than those grown under HID irradiation, the light condition in the LED chamber may not be sufficient to promote fruit development. The present results are expected to provide valuable information for the selection of transgenic eggplants with high β-carotene content in fruit under artificial lighting.
Stomatal regulation, a multifaceted mechanism enabling plants to adapt to diverse environmental conditions and optimize photosynthesis for survival and growth, is considered crucial in drought stress tolerance research. To further enhance our understanding of stomatal regulation, we investigated the novel transcription factors involved in this process. Our findings reveal that SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5 (SGR5) is involved in the stomatal response to darkness in Arabidopsis. Water loss measurements showed that SGR5-overexpressing plants retained more water, whereas SGR5-knockout lines exhibited increased water loss compared with the control. Unexpectedly, our analyses indicated that SGR5 was not associated with the abscisic acid signaling pathway, in contrast to its homologous transcription factor, INDETERMINATE DOMAIN 14. Instead, SGR5-knockout lines exhibited weakened stomatal closure responses upon transition to darkness. Collectively, our results highlight the regulatory role of SGR5 in mediating stomatal movement in response to darkness.