The effects of different methods of fertilization on rice uptake and recovery of nitrogen were studied using 15N-lablled chicken manure (CM) and ammonium sulfate (AS). The results showed that the application method of totally basal dressing of organic and inorganic fertilizers can increase the N uptake by rice from the fertilizers. The N uptake from CM was obviously higher than that from AS. The N partitioning to rice grain was also higher than other application methods. The effect on increasing yield was obviously higher than the method of application of chemical fertilizers only. This method had such benefits as increasing N use efficiency, increasing N residue in soil and reducing N loss. High rice yield can be obtained while the soil fertility can be maintained with this method. So it is an effective and practical method of fertilization technique thus can be recommended to rice growers.
The relationship between chemical components of pod shell and pod dehiscence was investigated using 25 soybean cultivars; 16 with easily dehiscing pods (susceptible cultivars) and 9 with hardly dehiscing pods (resistant cultivars). After air-drying for about three weeks, the pod shells were ground and analyzed for the contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), hemi-cellulose (HCe), cellulose (Ce), uronic acid and calcium. The correlation of the contents of chemical components with the percentage of pod dehiscence (%PD) was examined by principal component analysis. The first principal ingredient score was given by the formula; score=-0.421[ADF] -0.038[ADL]+0.821[HCe] -0.382[Ce]+20.556, where, [ADF], [ADL], [HCe] and [Ce] are percentage of each component in dried pod shell. This score gave an eigenvalue of 30.2 and contribution rate of 97.1%, and the score was higher in the susceptible cultivars than in the resistant cultivars on the average. The multiple regression analysis of the relationship between %PD and the content of chemical components also showed that %PD was best predicted by the regression equation with two chemical components, [HCe] and [Ce]. Water retention capacity and cellulose crystallinity of the pod shell were less different between the susceptible and resistant cultivars. The results in this study suggested that the chemical analysis of dry pod shell may provide useful information on breeding and selection of the resistant cultivars.
Coronatine is a phytotoxin that affects the accumulation of defence-related metabolites in plants but information on how its effects may be mediated by environmental stress is scanty. An experiment was carried out to determine the changes in growth, gas exchange, relative water content, chlorophyll (Chl) content, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in maize (Zea mays L., var. ‘Nongda 3138’) seedlings treated with coronatine under simulated drought stress. Seedlings raised hydroponically in a growth chamber with simulated drought for 8d (long-period drought) or 3d (short-period drought) were treated with or without coronatine at the three-leaf stage. Under the drought condition, treated with coronatine significantly increased the fresh weight and relative water content in leaves of seedling leaves. The increase was accompanied by increased rates of photosynthesis and transpiration, and the maintenance of Chl pigments. Coronatine had no effects on catalase (CAT), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) under normal condition, but it significantly enhanced activities of CAT, POD and GR in stressed seedlings under the long-period drought treatment. Under the short-period drought treatment, the POD and GR activity in the seedlings treated with coronatine were much higher than in those not treated. Malondialdehyde (MDA) increased sharply under drought condition, but treatment with coronatine significantly reduced it by 15%. The total Chl content of leaves under the drought condition was markedly increased by the treatment with coronatine. Seedlings subjected to a short-period drought had reduced water content, but recovered fairly well by the treatment with coronatine with negligible effects on most physiological and biochemical processes. The application of coronatine alleviated the drought stress in maize seedlings and enhanced their tolerance of water stress through changes in physiological and anti-oxidant enzyme activities.
The supernodulating soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivar Kanto 100 was previously characterized by superior nitrogen (N) fixation and photosynthesis, and resulting in high yields. However, this cultivar seems to be susceptible to waterlogging during the vegetative growth stage, which frequently occurs in major soybean producing areas in East Asia. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of waterlogging on nodulation, N fixation and photosynthesis in Kanto 100 with those in its normally-nodulating ancestral cultivar Enrei. Kanto 100 and Enrei were grown in pots, and subjected to waterlogging for 10 days at three vegetative growth stages in 2003 and 2004. Waterlogging significantly reduced the number of nodules of both cultivars, but the magnitude of the reduction was more pronounced in Kanto 100. The acetylene reduction activity (ARA) of nodules and apparent photosynthetic rate (AP) of leaves were generally depressed immediately after the start of waterlogging, but both functions recovered substantially at the pod-filling stage in both cultivars. No marked cultivar difference was found in the magnitude of the reduction of ARA per plant and AP measured immediately after waterlogging and at the pod-filling stage in both years, but growth impairment was more pronounced in Kanto 100 in 2003. These results suggest that the supernodulating cultivar Kanto 100 is more susceptible to waterlogging than its normally-nodulating ancestral cultivar.
The aim of this study was to verify that wheat seedlings treated with Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 (CHA0 hereafter) before inoculation with Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), a pathogen of take-all, acquire induced resistance to Ggt. The soil with wheat seedlings growing on it was drenched with a suspension of CHA0 cells and inoculated with Ggt 24 h later. Then, the seedlings were grown in a glasshouse, and severity of take-all disease, fresh weights of root and shoot and lengths of root and shoot, and also the activities of soluble peroxidase (SPOX), ionically cell-wall-bound peroxidase (CWPOX), β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase and the concentration of total phenolic compounds in the root of the seedlings were examined. The results indicated that the treatment with CHA0 before inoculation with Ggt mitigated the disease severity significantly, and increased the root and shoot lengths and root and shoot fresh weights. The treatment with CHA0 increased the activities of SPOX, CWPOX, β-1-3-glucanase, β-1,4-glucanase and phenolic compounds in the wheat roots and the activities of SPOX and β-1,4-glucansee activities were highest at day 4 and those of CWPOX and β-1,3-glucanase at day 6 after inoculation with Ggt. The concentration of total phenolic compounds was also highest at day 6 after the inoculation with Ggt. The results suggest that the take-all suppressing effect of CHA0 may be related to enhanced defense response of the wheat roots.
The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on silica deposition on husk epidermis of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Akitakomachi) during the flowering stage were investigated in this study. The study was motivated by the concept that the rice yield maybe affected by global warming as a result of elevated [CO2] environment since sterility of rice is related to the panicle silica content that influences transpiration, and elevated [CO2] could affect plant transpiration. Silica deposition analysis was focused on the flowering stage of the rice crop grown hydroponically under two [CO2] conditions: 350 μmol mol-1 (ambient) and 700 μmol mol-1 (elevated). Silica deposition on the husk epidermis from three parts of the panicle at four flowering stages were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) combined with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDX). The results demonstrated that elevated [CO2] significantly suppressed silica deposition on the husk epidermis at the lower part of the panicle, and at the early flowering stage when 1/3 of the panicle emerged from the leaf sheath. In the transverse section analysis of the husk, silica deposition on the husk epidermis under elevated [CO2] was less than that under ambient [CO2] at the late flowering stage. The less silica deposition observed on the husks at the late flowering stage under elevated [CO2] might be related to the suppressed transpiration from the panicle by elevated [CO2] found in a previous study.
Rice plants are damaged by flash floods with a rapid increase in water level caused by a heavy rain. However, rice plants cope with the flash floods either by an “escape strategy” involving rapid shoot elongation or by a “quiescence strategy” involving surviving under water with minimal activity. As we found in previous experiments, Saligbeli cultivar adapted well to flash floods through rapid shoot elongation. To understand the vigorous growth process during submergence, we studied the relationship between shoot elongation and changes in dry matter weight (DMW) during submergence. O. glaberrima Steud. cv. Saligbeli and O. sativa L. cv. Ballawé and IR 49830-7-1-2-2 were used. Saligbeli and Ballawé exhibit shoot elongation, and IR 49830-7-1-2-2 exhibits flash-flood tolerance due to the presence of the Sub-1 gene. Twelve-day-old seedlings were submerged for 7 days and the plant length and DMW were measured. The plant length ratio of submerged to control plants in Saligbeli was higher than that of other cultivars during 2-6 days of submergence but IR 49830-7-1-2-2 shoot elongation was inhibited by submergence. In all three cultivars, the elongation of the developing leaf sheath conferred shoot elongation during submergence. The plant length of all submerged plants showed a strong positive correlation with DMW of the leaves developed during submergence. Submerged Saligbeli and Ballawé showed strong negative correlations between DMW of the leaves developed before and during submergence (r = -0.786 for Saligbeli and -0.772 for Ballawé , P<0.05), suggesting that the enhancement of shoot elongation during submergence is accomplished by using dry matter of the leaves developed before submergence. However, the correlation was not observed in the submerged IR 49830-7-1-2-2. Further details from studies using isotopes are also needed to understand the plant growth during submergence.
Soil water regimes under field conditions inevitably tend to fluctuate ranging from drought to waterlogging. Genotypes that adapt better to such changing hydrologic conditions are assumed to have the ability to maintain root system development under such conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the responses of root system development based on lateral root production to transient moisture stresses, and the contribution of the elongation of seminal and nodal root axes and their lateral, root branching, and aerenchyma development in the seminal root axis, to root system development. The seedlings of two aerobic genotypes (UPLRi7 and NSICRc9) and one irrigated-lowland genotype (PSBRc82), and two parental genotypes (Nipponbare and Kasalath) of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) were grown by hydroponics. The seedlings were exposed to a drought condition by adding polyethylene glycol to the solution for 7 days and then to an O2-deficient stagnant condition for 7 days (drought-to-stagnant condition), or to reverse successive conditions (stagnant-to-drought condition). Under both conditions, the aerobic genotypes showed greater ability to produce lateral roots than the irrigated-lowland genotype. Under the transient stagnant-to-drought condition, the root traits that contributed to greater lateral root production in the aerobic genotypes were faster seminal root elongation that was closely associated with branching of lateral roots, and greater nodal root production. Under transient drought to stagnant condition; these were faster seminal root elongation mediated by higher aerenchyma formation, and greater nodal root production. Kasalath showed much greater ability to produce lateral roots under both transient moisture stress conditions than Nipponbare. This indicates the potential utility of the CSSLs for precise identification of desirable root traits with less genetic confounding.
Gene expression of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (rbcL) and small subunit (rbcS) in bundle sheath and mesophyll cells of rice, a C3 plant, was examined during leaf development and senescence by in situ hybridization. Localization of Rubisco protein in both cells was also examined by immuno-electron microscopy. Gene expression and accumulation of Rubisco were related with the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, such as Fv/Fm and ΦPSII, gradually increased during leaf development with the increase in the accumulation of Rubisco. However, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters decreased earlier than the Rubisco content during leaf senescence. The expression of rbcS decreased earlier in bundle sheath cells than in mesophyll cells during leaf development, whereas the expression of rbcL in both cells was retained during leaf development and decreased during leaf senescence. On the other hand, Rubisco content of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells increased during leaf development and decreased during leaf senescence. Rubisco was retained even after the disappearance of the expression of rbcS and rbcL detectable by in situ hybridization. The present results suggest that the expression pattern of rbcS in bundle sheath cells was somewhat different from that in mesophyll cells, but this difference was not reflected in Rubisco content.
In rhizosphere soil, mucilage and root border cells (RBCs) form a functional entity, the mucilage - border-cell complex (MB complex). Carbohydrates of the MB complex are utilized by rhizosphere bacteria, which are under strong grazing pressure of the soil food web, in particular protozoa. We investigated the role of the MB complex for protozoan effects on plant growth. First, the MB complex formed by 16 rice cultivars belonging to different ecotypes and subspecies were quantified. These cultivars were subsequently used to investigate protozoan effects on plant growth. The differences between the highest and lowest MB complex producers were 3.1 and 5.3 times for fully hydrated mucilage and RBCs, respectively. Mucilage production and RBCs showed a significant positive regression (R2=0.92) in Japonica. Presence of protozoa generally enhanced shoot biomass, lateral root growth and plant nitrogen uptake. Further, upland cultivars showed significantly higher growth enhancement than lowland cultivars in presence of protozoa. A significant positive regression between MB complex and increased lateral root growth by amoeba revealed that the MB complex facilitated protozoan effects on plant growth, which is the first evidence for a new functional role of the MB complex.
Two separate experiments (pot and field) were conducted to examine the response of soybean to Bradyrhizobium japonicum and phosphorus (P) fertilization. Different treatments were i) Rhizobium strains (0, S377, S379, and the mixture of S377+S379 i.e. S0, S1, S2, S3); ii) phosphorus (field only, 0, 50, 100 kg ha-1i.e. T0, T1, T2) and iii) two soils (pot only) i.e. autoclaved (A1) and non-autoclaved (A0). A soybean cultivar NARC-1 was tested for estimating growth traits, nodule number and mass, root development and yield traits. In the pot experiment, total number of nodules both in the A0 and A1 were negligible but increased significantly following the application of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In the field experiment, number of nodules increased from 6 in the control treatment without strains to a maximum of 86 in S3T1. Shoot dry weight increased significantly from 11.8 g plant-1 in the control soil to 15.6 g plant-1 in S3T1. Root length was increased but root mass was unaffected. Soybean seed yields ranged between 615 and 1003 kg ha-1 against 543 kg ha-1 in the control soil indicating a maximum of 85% increase over control. Shoot dry weight and seed yield had significant correlation with nodulation (R2=0.91). The results of experiments revealed significant positive effects of rhizobium inoculation and P fertilization on growth, nodulation and yield of soybean and, generally, mixture of strains (S3) was more effective than the strains S1 and S2. Results also indicated that high application of P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) reduced the efficiency of inoculants for nodule mass and seed yield.
We studied the year-round cultivation of sweet sorghum, which is a raw material for the fermentation of monosodium glutamate, in East Java, Indonesia. In this savanna area, each year comprises 2 seasons-dry (April-September) and rainy (October-March). Seed crops were sown almost every month for 1 yr, and each seed cropping was followed by a ratoon cropping after the seed crop harvest. The stem-related traits of plants from different sowing or ratooning dates were studied at around 17 weeks after sowing or ratooning. For both plants derived from seed and ratoon, better crop establishment was observed when cultivation was commenced during the rainy season than during the dry season. Although sowing was undertaken each week in August and September during the most severe dry period, germination rate was very low (or zero) and even the germinated plants died within a short time. In contrast, ratoon cropping was started and plants were grown until harvest. In East Java, it is considered possible to produce sweet sorghum throughout the year, mainly by sowing, but also partially by ratooning during the most severe drought period of the dry season.
We evaluated the usefulness of the Stylosanthes guianensis (stylo)- rice relay-intercropping system for increasing agricultural productivity in Northeast Thailand. Although large production variability was observed, the relay-intercropping system produced an average of 350g m-2 stylo dry matter during the dry season under non-irrigated and non-fertilized conditions in the experimental fields at the Ubon Rice Research Center. Utilization of the stylo production as green manure increased rice yield, but only slightly. The relay-intercropping also slightly improved soil chemical properties, but not significantly. The trial of the relay-intercropping in farmer’s fields produced a maximum of 367g m-2 stylo dry matter. Since the stylo production did not decrease the subsequent rice production, the rice-stylo relay-intercropping system is worth considering as one way to utilize the paddy fields during the dry season in Northeast Thailand.
The mechanism of gravitropism in yam tubers was investigated using two cultivars of Chinese yam, cv. Nagaimo which elongates to form a long tuber, and cv. Genkotsujirou which elongates in the initial stage and then spherically thickens. In both cultivars, many amyloplasts were locally formed and settled down vertically in each cell at the part beneath the stele of the elongating tuber. In contrast, amyloplasts in the stele in the apical part of the elongating tuber in these cultivars were smaller in number and size than those in the part beneath the stele and did not settle down vertically. In the thickening tuber of Genkotsujirou, the number of amyloplasts decreased and they did not settled down vertically in the part beneath the stele. In Nagaimo tuber tilted on an inclined plate, amyloplasts in the part beneath the stele in apical part of tuber also settled in the direction of gravity. Tubers elongated vertically as soon as they passed through the inclined plate. In such tubers, amyloplasts in the part beneath the stele were vertically settled down. These results indicated that amyloplasts in the part beneath the stele would play a role as statoliths for the perception of gravity. Crystal cells and tannin cells dispersed in the part beneath the stele of tuber as in the cortex surrounding the stele. The result indicated that the part beneath the stele is a part of cortex. Therefore, the cortex in the apical part of tuber was presumably important as the site of gravity perception.