The municipal solid waste collection-transportation system has recently become an important topic of discussion among solid waste management planners, because of geometrical increase of the municipal solid waste volume and the collection-transportation distances. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relation between efficient municipal solid waste collection-transportation system and the environmental impact. The efficient municipal solid waste collection-transportation system under this study includes the introduction of relay transportation system and the dispersion of collection-transportation bases. The environmental impact is measured in terms of going into and out of the collection-transportation base and changing transportation route. Depending on the municipal solid waste collection-transportation survey conducted at Toyohashi City, Aichi Prefecture, this paper presents the efficient system balanced with the environment.
This paper describes the necessity and feasibility of application of risk concept for planning of landfill site. Risk assessment procedure has not been adapted for planning of waste treatment and disposal facility in japan. Moreover, CERCLA in U.S.A. requires the utilization of general risk assessment procedures for remedial actions of hazardous waste disposal sites but not planning of landfill site. The purpose of this study is to develop the scientific and rational method of risk assessment for planning of landfill site, in order to improve the public health standard and to protect environment. Our developed risk assessment method is applied to a hypothetical problem as an example which deals with the selection of the best sealing method for leakage by using multiattribute decision analysis.
NIMBY is the acronym of “Not in My Backyard”, the syndrome of which has been used in North America after Love Canal case, as a convenient label to discredit citizens' opposition to hazardous waste disposal siting. A symposium to de-mystify NIMBY syndrome was held in 1983 at York University with participants from various parties. In this paper, the key issues of the symposium are firstly introduced characterizing typical standpoints of senior/local governments, industries, activists or environmentalists, journalism/academism, etc. Referring to the recommendations of workshop in the symposium, risk assessment and environmental mediation are considered to be most expectable tools to resolve NIMBY disputes. These are nextly discussed here in comparison with Japanese situation of waste management policy. The most distinct difference may be the perception of democracy crisis brought by NIMBY-leading waste management. When NIMBY is based upon ultimate fear of woman's miscarriage or birth defect of children, an image to in-formàre socio-environmental system for waste management can be depicted by intrinsic matching of “individual” with “Lebenswelt”. The last part of this paper deals with an esquisse for the proposed system in terms of in der Welt sein vis-à-vis consumer.
Humankind has been consuming the natural resources, exhausting them, also discharging much quantities of waste matter, destroying the natural environment, and polluting it by population growth and man's activities. This human pressure on the natural environment raises the environmental pressure on humankind which injures man's health or brings disadvantages on human life and activities. When the environmental pressure is raised more than some value, a negative feedback acts on humankind from the natural environment, so it lowers the human pressure. The natural environment has a restoring power which lowers the environmental pressure. If the human pressure is lower than the restoring power of the natural environment, the natural environment lowers the environmental pressure, so the natural environment is healthy. To keep off the ruin of humankind, we must lower the human pressure on the natural environment. So we must lower population growth and keep man's activities under the restoring power of the natural environment.We must also manage the development and the industrial activities properly to protect the natural resources and the environment from insignificant destruction. Furthermore, we must develop the technology to lower the human pressure.
An investigation has been made to find the harmonic point between cultural properties protection and national land development. On the basis of the author's experiences as the member of an expert committee, a detailed methodology on this problem has been proposed and discussed. It has been concluded that if cultural properties protection is harmonized with national land development, and vice versa, cultural properties protection as well as national land development are essential for our cultural progress, although, if not, they contradict each other.
The results of environmental assessment on preservation of the Komatsu Tenmanguu Shrine and conservation of the Kakehashi River were reported. The historical and cultural impotance of the shrine which was designated as a national important cultural asset was described. The shrine was also evaluated its importance in the urban planning of Komatsu City. The results of questionare survey to Komatsu citizen on preservation of the shrine and conservation of the river showed that they hoped the both preservation and conservation works were necessary without creating contradiction between them. In conclusion, it was recommended that the city had to make her own urban planning of long range development which includes both the river conservation and the shrine presevation programs.
High pollutant concentrations, exceeding the Japanese environmental standard, have been observed in large cities during the winter night-time. One reason for this is the occurrence of a special meteorological condition, the nocturnal urban boundary layer (UBL), over the cities. In this paper, the basic modeling method for urban area was proposed. In this model, the turbulent diffusion coefficient was modeled by the turbulent kinetic energy (k) and energy dissipation rate (ε). The most important improvement of this model is the special treatment of urban building density by using form drag concept. The calculation result for the idealized urban condition shows the typical UBL characteristics. For the validation of the model, an extensive field observation result of the UBL structure conducted during January 1983 in Shinjuku, Tokyo, was presented. In this observation, the meteorological parameters and pollutant concentrations were observed using specially designed kytoon-mounted turbulence sonde system. The observed characteristics of nocturnal UBL including the land breeze penetration shows the good agreement with the model results. The proposed model can be used for the planning of the urban area in order to decrease the high pollutant concentration.
To separate non-polluted ground water run-off origined by precipitation from observed river discharge at urban areas, electric conductivity of water was measured at wells, springs and gauging stations of rivers. Electric conductivily of water is closely related to concentration of chloride and different basins have each regression lines. From these lines electric conductivitiy of non-polluted ground water (Cg) was estinated and non-polluted ground water run-off (Qg) was evaluated by observed discharge and electric conduct ivity of water at each rivers.
The Common Reed (Phragmites communis) is observed commonly along the coastal area and the river mouth, and is known by its high capability of the nutrient uptake. For the feasibility study of the functional use of the reed-field with its ecosystem to remove the excess nutrient, field observation was conducted at the small tidal-marsh of the Tokyo Bay. This reed-field is found to play an important role for the nutrient cycle at the marsh, and shows high nutrient uptake rate under the natural condition.
Nowadays, it has been reported that pathogenic viruses may be transmitted by water. However, in spite of a health significance of viruses in water, few reports on viral pollution in an aquatic environment have been published in Japanese journals for environmental or sanitary engineers. Therefore, in order to promote their interest in the viral pollution, the results of research on viral pollution which has been published in domestic and international journals are introduced in this paper together with authors'aspect.
In the Rokkaku basin, paddy fields have spread over extensively reclaimed lands and the water requirement surpasses the river water utilization capacity. Then many irrigation ponds and deep wells were constracted, and traditional water control systems have been kept for some 400 years by regional inhabitants. The farmland improvement project and constraction of the river mouth reservoir are in effect, and they will change inhabitant consciousness about water quantity and quality. It is necessary to reform the water control system with quantity and quality according to the improvement of irrigation and drainage establishments and the development of rural communities. The water environment in the rural area has to be independently managed by the organization mainly composed of local inhabitants, and the administrative organizations have to provide sewage treatment system at cities for the preservation and improvement of water quality in this basin.
Household produces goods and services by itself, and gives load on environment through its production and consumption process.Influence of household on environment becomes greater. It is important to contral and manage environmental dependence (ED) and household activities that lighten the load on environment. Following points are discussed.(1) Household economy model is considered. It shows saving time brings increase of ED.(2) To show the effectiveness of the model, it is adapted to the material use of household in Edo-era society.(3) Activities for reducing ED in household has trade-off relationship with activities pursuing economic rationality For examining ED of household, questionnaire survey was made to show what kind of conditions including time use influence on ED, based on two concept, unconsiousness and con-ciousness supporting systems.
Environment planning is pressed for the conversion of frame oriented planning into process oriented planning. This papers substantiate the above statement by analyzing dynamics of inhabitants' consciousness and actions about movement of improvement in neighbor enviornment. These results clarify that it is essential for the conversion of planning process to combine for semantic environment, Therefore, an administrative department is necessary to support the community participation system, preparing flexible frameworks, criterions and standards on environment planning.
In recent years, among the causes of eutrophication in semi-closed water areas, domestic wastewater represents a high percentage of the total pollution load. So of measures must be worked out to reduce the polltion load by housefold effluent. The role of local residents has gained considerable importance to implement these measures fruitfully. The purpose of this paper is to analyze local residents' consiousness to measures for household wastewater through questionnaire surveys in a model area. First, residents' consiousness to their neighboring environment and their need of wastewater treatment facility is analyzed. Residents who live in an undesirable environment appreciate the necessity of wastewater treatment facilities, but their willingness to pay for such costly measure is not high. And so they expect financial support from the local government. Second, the effect of environmental campaign activities is analyzed. The significance of campaign activities is to graw residents' awareness of their neighboring environment and to sustain their attention to the environment is an important key to realizing a better environment.
Physical factors given or controlled by many administrative planning and management procedures are integrated in a region and form living environment there. Miscoordinations in this total integration process of planning and control system cause environmental conflicts in the region, which usually are cared for one by one in the lowest level of control under the name of environmental policy.To emerge from this symptomatic treatment policy, environmental planning procedure, that is intrinsically “bottom up” style, should find some compromising way with other rather “top down” style physical planning procedures. Traffic pollution, that is urgent and typical urban environmental problem nowadays and is discussed in the context of establishing control plan for it among local governments, embodies most those miscoordinating situations. This report, taking it as a case, discusses how the compromising measures should be developed to establish realistic, effective environmental planning process.Development of macro indices that can be used in each planning stages of other administrative plans, and utilization of information system to grasp the situation through all those integrating stages are proposed to be of use for this coordination.
Road traffic pollution has become serious and still remains unsolved.It would be extremely difficult to achieve effective road traffic pollution control unless comprehensive control measures were further implemented.The road traffic pollution problems are very closely tied with the locality and the way they are to be coped varies, depending on the local natural and social characteristics.Given this factor, it is necessary that effective measures should be formulated while the local governments play the leading role.Kobe city government is to draw up a ‘Road Traffic Pollution Control Program’ in co-operation with agencies concerned and shall endeavor to take measures necessary for the full implementation of the program.The term of the program will be FY 1988-2001.
Environmental impact assessment <EIA> procedures have been adopted in major countries of the Asia and the Pacific Regin. This paper reviews the background of EIA development, similarity and difference of various EIA procedures, and accumulation of EIA experiences in the region. It also reviews EIA methodologies applied in the region and analyses the constraints of EIA implementation in the region. As a result of this analysis, it suggests the urgent development of rapid EIA techniques, environmental informatin systems, and manpower development trainings.