In brain injury rehabilitation, passive movement exercises are frequently used to maintain or improve mobility and range of motion. They can also induce beneficial and sustained neuroplastic changes. Neuroimaging studies have revealed that passive movements without motor commands activate not only the primary somatosensory cortex but also the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and posterior parietal cortex as well as the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2) in healthy subjects. Repetitive passive movement has also been reported to induce increases or decreases in cortical excitability. In this review, we focused on the following: cortical activity following passive movement; cortical excitability during passive movement; and changes in cortical excitability after repetitive passive movement.
Patients with type 2 diabetes may have motor dysfunctions such as loss of muscle strength. Compared with non-diabetic subjects, patients with diabetes show decreased lower extremity muscle strength. The aim of this review was to describe the influence of factors associated with loss of muscle strength in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aging promotes an accelerated loss of muscle strength in patients with diabetes. Physical inactivity may cause a decline in muscle strength in patients with diabetes. Gradual loss of muscle strength is related to the presence and severity of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic nephropathy may be a factor contributing to loss of muscle strength, because decrease in skeletal muscle mass is a hallmark of end-stage renal disease. Resistance exercise is an essential component of diabetes treatment regimens and also plays a role in the prevention and management of sarcopenia. Intensive physical therapy intervention should be provided to patients with diabetes having decreased muscle strength.
Objective: To evaluate the association between the cross-sectional area of selected shoulder and scapular muscles and the range of shoulder abduction, early after neck dissection surgery. Patients and Methods: Twenty-seven patients (contributing 34 upper limbs), who had undergone neck dissection surgery for head and neck malignancy, were enrolled into the study. Loss of strength of the trapezius muscle at 1-month post-surgery was quantified by the change in active range of shoulder abduction (%A-ROM), measured by hand-held goniometry in a standing position, from baseline, before surgery. The cross-sectional area of the following muscles were measured on unenhanced computed tomography images after surgery: trapezius, rhomboid, serratus anterior, pectoralis major, deltoid, and biceps brachii. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between the %A-ROM and the cross-sectional area of the rhomboid muscle. Conclusion: Greater active shoulder abduction early after surgery is associated with a greater cross-sectional area of the rhomboid muscle. This muscle should be included in intensive programs for rehabilitation of upper limb movement after neck dissection surgery.
Background: Neurocognitive function may be a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by changing neuromuscular control such as muscle activities. However, the effect of differences in neurocognitive function on biomechanics and neuromuscular control related to ACL injury risk is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of differences in neurocognitive function on biomechanics and neuromuscular control during an unanticipated side-step cutting motion. Method: The subjects were 15 collegiate female athletes who were divided into two groups using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). The experimental task was an unanticipated side-step cutting motion from a 30 cm high box. We calculated joint angles and moments using a 3-dimensional motion analysis system from the dominant leg, and measured muscle activities using a surface electromyography. We calculated the co-contraction ratio (CCR) as relative muscle activity of the quadriceps to the hamstring. Results: As a result, subjects with a lower SDMT score had significantly increased quadriceps activity before and after ground contact and decreased CCR only after ground contact. Conclusion: In the lower SDMT score group, the quadriceps showed stronger muscle activity than the hamstring during an unanticipated side-step cutting motion. This dominant quadriceps muscle activity has been reported to increase the load on the ACL, and there was a possibility of increasing the risk of the ACL injury. Considering these factors, subjects with lower neurocognitive function could have a high risk of ACL injury due to alterations in muscle activities surrounding the knee.
Background: Long-term results in muscle strength, physical activity (PA), and functional improvement after total hip arthroplasty (THA) have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deficits in functional performance, PA, and high fall rate in patient 10 years after THA compared to healthy adults. Methods: The subjects were 58 patients who underwent primary THA for unilateral hip osteoarthritis 10 years, and 46 healthy adults. Hip abductor strength, balance function (single-leg stance time), Maximal Walking Speed (MWS), fall rate, and PA (IPAQ short ver.) were evaluated. The unpaired t-test and χ2 test were used to assess differences between the groups. Statistical significance was set at p value <0.05. Results: Compared to healthy adults, THA patients had 9.5% less hip abductor muscle strength on the operated side, 42.1% shorter single-leg stance time on the operated side, 14.8% slower MWS, 2.0 times less High-PA group, and 2.8 times higher fall rate (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that hip abductor muscle strength, gait speed, balance function, and PA were significantly lower in patients 10 years after THA than in healthy adults. Additionally, the fall rate was significantly higher in patients 10 years post-THA than in healthy adults.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate urine protein excretion and the effect of muscle strengthening in patients with renal disease. Subjects: Twenty-eight patients (18 to 87 years old) with acute onset renal disease were treated with steroids at the Hospital of Shiga University of Medical Science. Maximum quadriceps force was measured, and 20-minutes sessions in resistance training were started. After 5 weeks, maximum quadriceps force was measured again. Results: Quadriceps force showed no significant difference between before and after intervention. There was negative correlation between mean urinary protein excretion and amount of change in quadriceps force over the 5 weeks (r=-0.40, p=0.038). Conclusions: We observed the patients with reduced urine protein excretion are tends to easier to obtain muscle strengthening. On the other hand, there is a possibility that the patients with increased urine protein excretion are hard to obtain muscle strengthening, during the intervention.