[Purpose] Investigating nursing activities in disaster relief and preparedness during different disaster phases, as reflected in the literature published since the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE).
[Methods] A literature search was conducted for the period between 2011 and 2016 using the following a formula for keywords in the Japan Medical Abstracts Society Database Version 5: ‘activities’ or ‘relief’ or ‘preparedness’ and ‘disaster’ not but ‘work-related accidents’. Inclusion criteria were concrete descriptions of nursing activities practiced in disaster relief and preparedness and description of disaster phases. A total of 110 papers were analyzed. The data extracted was first organized into groups matching the four phases of a disaster: acute, subacute, mid-long, and preparedness. Second, the data were analyzed to created itemized lists. Next, these lists were classified into subcategories. Finally, the subcategories were categorized into categories.
[Results] More than 80% of the literature that was found and examined described the activity reports from GEJE, and 20% dealt with the Fukushima nuclear accident. In the analysis, 388 lists and 140 subcategories of nursing relief and preparedness were found. These subcategories were then classified into eight categories, namely, help for vulnerable populations, relief for radiation disaster, management of healthcare systems, prevention of health problems, provision of a safe environment, assistance for daily living, provision of medical service, and cultivation of human resources.
[Discussion] Nursing activities were taking place in different disaster phases and continuing nursing activities ranging from the acute to mid-long phases were identified. Additionally, “help for vulnerable population” and “relief for radiation disaster” was understood as systemized nursing activities newly, not found in previous literature reviews. Hence, the future study on this subject is needed to reflect for practice and education.
[Purpose] To clarify and conceptually analyze “minor troubles” during pregnancy and to consider care for pregnant women as a part of nursing practice.
[Methods] The concept analysis approach by Rodgers was used. Data were collected and analyzed from 18 references that were identified using the searching keyword for “minor trouble” by Medical Magazine Web (Ver. 5).
[Results] The attributes identified were “condition accompanied by discomfort,” “fluctuate according to the number of gestational weeks,” and “no adverse effect on birth.” The prerequisites of “morphological change,” and “endocrine change” were extracted as types of awareness of change awareness due to pregnancy, and “change in living environment” were was extracted as change affected by pregnancy. Furthermore, the consequences found to affect pregnant women regarding “to have difficulties in life” that were extracted were “suppression of hope and pleasure for childbirth and child-rearing,” “understanding of the surroundings cannot be obtained,” and “to endure the pain relief and give up.”
[Conclusion] We thus defined the concept of a minor trouble in pregnancy as “a subjective phenomenon of a pregnant woman who is in a condition that is accompanied by fluctuating discomfort (depending on the number of gestational weeks) and has no adverse effect on childbirth.” Conceptual analysis of minor troubles during pregnancy is necessary in order to provide knowledge about such troubles, to check pregnant women’s conditions by listening to them, and to have a viewpoint that will affect pregnant women.