There are a considerable number of cases reported that an ex-convict's children are negatively perceived even though they themselves have not committed a crime. However, there are few quantitative researches and reasons for the negative perception have not been discussed well. This study hypothesized that the negative perception is associative stigma, and a reason for the stigma is genetic essentialism. Associative stigma is the tendency to being stigmatized or devalued based on his or her association with a stigmatized person. Genetic essentialism is the tendency to ascribe genes as a fixed and underlying nature to members of a category. An experiment was conducted, where all the participants were shown two separated vignettes of a middle-aged man who was a murderer, and of a boy who slapped his classmate. Also, the participants were given a minimum amount of information about the relationships between the two protagonists; they were randomly divided into three conditions, Child-by-blood condition (CBB), Child-by-adoption condition (CBA), and Unrelated condition (URL). If the hypothesis is supported, the boy would be perceived negatively most by CBB and least by URL. The results showed that while the boy was perceived more negatively by CBB than by URL when the perception of the middle-aged man, the murderer, was controlled, there was no such difference between CBA and URL. Although there was no difference between CBB and CBA, which contradicts with the hypothesis that genetic essentialism is a reason for the stigma, considering that there was a significant difference only between CBB and URL and not between CBA and URL, there is the possibility of the existence of genetic essentialism.
Previous research of implicit theories has revealed that when a person needs to evaluate others ability, incremental theorists (who believe ability is malleable) tend to value effort, whereas entity theorists (who believe ability is fixed) tend to value results. However, recent research shows that entity theorists tend to search and find the most appropriate task for themselves on task performance, suggesting that it would be more important among entity theorists than incremental theorists to make precise evaluation of ability. Based on this assumption, we hypothesised that, when entity theorists need to evaluate other's ability, they would use the information of whether he/she made enough effort or not. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a paper and pencil experiment by using a vignette of a figure who is preparing for exam, in which we manipulated (1) the amount of effort the figure made and (2) whether the figure's grades improved or not. We measured to what extent participants would attribute the outcome to the figure's ability and effort, and how much effort they would request to the figure for his future performance. As a result, entity theorists attributed the outcome to the figure's ability when his grades improved with little effort or did not improve despite his effort. Also, entity theorists requested the figure to make further effort when he did not work hard and his grades did not improve. These results suggest that entity theorists evaluate other's ability not just by outcome but by paying attention to the information of his/her effort.
Some rehabilitative approaches were taken toward a male patient in his 40's by following the processes of cognitive dysfunction as a form of information-processing. He had been found, after an operation for craniopharingioma, to have a disturbance of consciousness. He was then found to suffer from disturbed attention, poor memory, and other cognitive dysfunctions after disturbance of consciousness had improved. A memory notebook as an external assistant-means was introduced in addition to some direct approaches to amnesia. The introduction of the memory notebook was difficult because the patient was not fully aware of his amnesia, and therefore some other approaches were taken in line with the concept of awareness. As a result, some improvements were found in WMS-R and other evaluations. Intellectual awareness was also obtained, and the patient could check his memory notebook voluntarily. Because the approaches were made using a hierarchical model, it was easier to understand the actual status and stages in this case history, and rehabilitation interventions were conducted smoothly.
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of newly developed questionnaire to assess the burden expressive suppression for Japanese (J-BES) (Hatta et al., 2018). Reliability was assessed by the comparison of responses of J-BES between 2017 and 2018 of the same population and checked whether the factor structures are the same to those of 2017. Validity assessment was conducted firstly by examining of the correlation between scores of J-BES and the executive function tests (EF: D-CAT, Stroop test). Further, validity was compared using daily living behavior items related to EF for the high and the low score groups based upon subject's J-BES score by a median value whether there is a difference. Factor analyses of J-BES using two different populations revealed that both consisted of same factors and re-administration of one year later showed no correlation. Correlations between J-BES and EF tests were low and further high and low J-BES groups showed non-significant difference in EF test scores. These findings suggest low validity of the J-BES. However, possible reason of the discrepancy from previous study (Niermeyer, Franchow, & Suchy, 2016) might be participants' difference. Previous study relied mainly on young females but 40-80 years old community-dwellers were the participants in this study. Further studies are indispensable before concluding that J-BES is not worthy of use with low reliability or validity.
The aim of this study was to examine whether the lesson based on the jigsaw method (Aronson, 1978; Brown, 1997) introduced the repeated retrieval-based learning for promoting student's metacognition could have effects on the encouragements of their students' initiative and communication skills. Ninety-seven students participated the lesson consisted of five phases. First, they grasped the meanings of lesson theme and took the self-affirmation awareness scale as a pre-measurement. Second, during the expert phase, they studied an assigned part of texts related to lesson theme by retrieval-based learning. Third, in the jigsaw group, each students were asked to explain an assigned part of texts for the remaining group members in turns by using the four metacognitive strategies (Palincsar & Brown, 1984). Fourth, students in the representative group made the presentation related to theme through the cross talk. Finally, all students took the self-affirmation awareness scale as a post-measurement and were asked to give feedback for the lesson in free description. As a result, in free descriptions, it seems that many students realized an importance of additional learning related to theme. More importantly, as a whole, the results showed that the lesson practice in this study had positive effects on the encouragements of the students' initiative and reduced interpersonal tension in self-affirmation awareness scale. We summarized the three points for the benefits of the lesson practice in this study.