Seawater is used as a readily available heat exchange medium in steam condensers and LNG regasifiers in coastal power plants and factories. Hydrogen peroxide is often used as an antifoulant in such systems or as a veterinary product for aquaculture. However, ecotoxicological studies of hydrogen peroxide on a variety of marine organisms, especially for common coastal marine species are insufficient unlike those of chlorine which is another antifoulant. Therefore, we studied the biological effect of hydrogen peroxide on five phytoplanktons (Heterocapsa triquetra, Rhodomonas salina, Tetraselmis sp., Skeletonema marinoi-dohrnii complex and Chaetoceros didymus), seaweed gametophytes (Undaria pinnatifida), and crustacean zooplanktons (marine harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus and larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite), and compared with that of residual chlorine. Test results indicated that the lowest no observed effect concentrations (NOEC) of hydrogen peroxide and residual chlorine were estimated to be 1.05 mg/L and less than 0.1 mg/L for all the organisms used in this study, respectively. The difference between the NOECs of hydrogen peroxide and residual chlorine was considered to be due to their different action mechanisms.
As first discovered by Darwin, barnacles (Cirripedia: Thoracica) show diverse sexual systems including simultaneous hermaphroditism, dioecy (separate sexes), and androdioecy (coexistence of males and hermaphrodites). The males are always much smaller than their hermaphrodite or female mates (hence called dwarf males). Here I review recent theoretical and empirical studies that address causes of the diverse sexual systems in barnacles. The size of mating groups (or more accurately, the average number of matings from other hermaphrodites a female-acting hermaphrodite is expected to accept) is identified as the most important environmental factor responsible for the evolutionary transitions of sexual systems in barnacles. I suggest that barnacles offer both theoretical and empirical model systems for understanding the evolution of sexual systems in animals.
April 03, 2017 There had been a system trouble from April 1, 2017, 13:24 to April 2, 2017, 16:07(JST) (April 1, 2017, 04:24 to April 2, 2017, 07:07(UTC)) .The service has been back to normal.We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause you.
May 18, 2016 We have released “J-STAGE BETA site”.
May 01, 2015 Please note the "spoofing mail" that pretends to be J-STAGE.