This paper aims to clarify the process of self-expression in “Graphic Score Making” through analysis of music teaching-learning process. First, we defined the word “self-expression” according to John Dewey's theory of experience and, next, composed a framework composed of impulse, resistance and problem-solving. Second, we planned and implemented graphic score making in an elementary school music appreciation class as this framework, and conducted an analysis on how a sample child could come to achieve self-expression through the lesson. Finally, we examined several viewpoints for lesson construction necessary to realize self-expression. From our results, we drew the following conclusions.
(1) The sample child went through the process of self-expression as follows :
Sample child became conscious of his problems when he felt stressed by engaging with others. He interacted with some targets (i. e. music) to solve them. He became sensitive and receptive to the inner world by an interaction. Then he output the inner world through various media (sounds, language, and the visual). And we verified the practical effectiveness of this framework.
(2) Sample child realized self-expression with the reconciliation between individual and society due to the actions of the others in the class and musical facts as subject matter.
The viewpoints of lesson construction necessary to realize self-expression arouse an impulse or interest in the subject matter, make one conscious of one' s problems, and set the common media or materials in a group.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the points of view of the lesson structure for “Active Learning,” focusing on aspects of children's communication in a music lesson.
First, we review the literature on “Active Learning” and, furthermore, arrive at a point of view of the lesson structure. Next, we consider aspects of children's communication through analyzing the music lesson. Then, we derive an empirical point of view of the lesson structure to realize “Active Learning”.
From the result of our analysis, we conclude the necessity of the following about the lesson structure as a way of realizing “Active Learning”
First, we create a situation for the students to perceive and sense the sound or the music around them, and let them to share their ideas based on the music. Next, they imagine and interact with the music through their images in their own way. Last, they share their ideas about both the music and the words, etc. that are related to other media.
This study aims to clarify the function of physical expression as seen in critical essays about music appreciation classes, focusing on the relationship between movement and language in a “community of action.“
This essay clarifies the relationship between movement and language in a “community of action” on the basis of relevant literature.
Next, we configure an appreciation class that introduced physical expression, established the community of action, and hypothetically set up the linguistic environment - and then we put it into practice.
Finally, we analyze the scenes taken from all of the video recordings of the practice in view of the configuration of class.
As a result of the analysis, we concluded the function of physical expression seen as noted in critical essays about the appreciation learning as follows :
(1) By being replaced by language, physical expression as community of action increases thinking about materials, creating a diversity of music quality which each group member has physically accepted as a possible meaning of “preserving” and “transferring”.
(2) The physical expression as the community of action encourages learners to make use of language, which enriches the critical essays.
The purpose of this study is to clarify what kind of environment is necessary to build in order to achieve sharing meaning through figurative representation in singing classes.
The research method employed organizes theory concerning sharing meaning through figurative representation in music classes as an artistic experience according to Dewey's communication theory. In addition to investigations into building a Dewey environment, we will examine class design that achieves sharing meaning through figurative representation in singing classes. Next, we will posit a hypothesis as the basis for class plans incorporating these points of view. By conceptualizing, implementing and reflecting on classes according to this hypothesis, we will clarify which kind of environment building is necessary in order to link meaning shared by children through figurative representation to musical expression.
Results showed the need for teachers to build the following environments that respond to children's successive changes in order to achieve sharing meaning through figurative representation in singing classes.
1) In “Experience” and “Reflection”, creating an opportunity to ask children what they like about music and their reasons, and asking what each music scenario is like.
2) In “Re-experience”, creating an opportunity for children to bring individual feelings to each scenario and think about how they would sing as a group.
3) Creating an opportunity for children to physically express words and onomatopoeia which serve as a “vehicle” for figurative representation expressing how the groups would sing in 2) by using these words and onomatopoeia as hints.
4) Creating an opportunity for children to question how to experience the feelings that they physically experienced in 3) as an expression while singing.
This research examines the development and characteristics of interest in music classes. This paper will look at the development and characteristics of interest in music classes, based on Dewey's theory of interest. The research was carried out in the following way. First, the concepts behind Dewey's theoretical framework with regard to interest are reviewed. Second, a conceptual model was used and applied toward the development of interest in a music class. Third, the process of developing interest in experiencing the music is analyzed.
The results of the research resulted in five key findings :
1. Student interest was based on feelings and thus affected by individual sensitivity ;
2. Students were interested in singing and other related activities during class ;
3. Students recognized the aim of the activity through singing ;
4. Students recognized the relationship between the ends (image) and means (musical elements) of the musical experience ;
5. Student interest was developed by understanding the relationship between these ends and means.
The observations showed that music classes that develop individual sensitivity through continuous musical activity have a strong effect on fostering the development of student interest.
This paper discusses the academic vocabulary acquisition process through the social interaction of a JSL student in a music class, based on the analysis of a music making lesson with the use of “Haiku” in a junior high school class. This paper analyzed the academic vocabulary acquisition process for the JSL (Japanese as a second language) student, who attends music lessons alongside the Japanese students in a special class. Transcript-based lesson analysis is the method of analysis employed.
In conclusion, the academic vocabulary acquisition process for the JSL student in the music lesson has the following three characteristics. 1) Non-verbal stage ; 2) The stage of making use of a distinction between outer and inner resources ; and 3) The stage of giving significance to musical expression. Therefore, the social learning situations in which various students interact ,based upon the teacher's strategies form the basis for the academic vocabulary acquisition process for a JSL student.
This study focuses on establishing analytical categories of teacher utterances to reveal teachers' approaches to students in music classes. Thereby, clues to help support students' proactive efforts through teacher comments were discovered.
Utterances in two music classes were analyzed and classified into 20 categories. Consequently, the percentage of “behavior instructions and encouragement” was the most notable analysis item that characterized the balance of teachers' approaches to students. Furthermore, “encouragement of thinking,” “acceptance,” and “evaluative judgments of students' efforts” played important roles in supporting students' proactivity.
In one class, the ratio of instructions was 41%, and a teaching style based on the teacher's instructions and students' responses was established. Evaluation of students' performance reinforced the style ; a student performed in response to the teacher's instructions, and the teacher evaluated the student's performance. In the other class, the ratio of instructions was 22%, and the teaching style was based on questioning ; the teacher repeated and thereby showed acceptance of keywords in students' utterances in response to teacher questions that encouraged students' thinking. The teacher then asked further questions. Evaluation of students' efforts reinforced this style, and the teacher encouraged desirable approaches to questions.
Overall, different teaching styles resulted in a different balance between desire for self-fulfillment and desire for solidarity in students' proactivity, and different roles of teachers.