The sanitation of sewage sludge and human feces is a fundamental challenge. The hyper-thermophilic composting method for sewage sludge and ash alkali compositing method for feces are introduced in this paper. To understand the rationale of both methods, the microbial ecology of the human intestine and plant rhizosphere was reviewed. The article provides a review of bacteria in nature and the health benefits of probiotic bacteria. It covers the bacterial diversity of sewage and the process units of the sewage treatment plant. The diversities of hyper-thermophilic compost and ash alkali compost (humanure) were compared and found to be similar to the diversity of root-associated bacteria that promote plant growth and protect plants from attacks by bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. In summary, both composting methods can produce beneficial bacteria for agriculture, which support probiotic environmental agriculture.
About 80% of all wastewaters worldwide are discharged to the environment without any or with inadequate treatment. This means loss of all nutrients in the wastewater and even if wastewater is treated, there are significant nutrient losses during the process. Human urine forms only a fraction of the wastewater flow by volume, but contains majority of nitrogen and phosphorus, which are essential nutrients for plant growth. To ensure the food security and maximum reuse of nutrients from side streams and wastes, also our own excreta—especially source separated urine—needs to be taken into use as a raw material for fertilizer products. There are several indications of the safe and efficient use of stored urine as a fertilizer in agriculture per se. Issues of concern are pharmaceuticals and micropollutants as well as risk of spreading pathogens when using in urine as fertilizer, but with proper treatment these can be minimized. Furthermore, the environmental benefits of urine separation and reuse are shown in several LCA studies. With an appropriate treatment, urine volume can be reduced, nutrients can be concentrated and recovered to increase the value and enable safe use of the nutrients. Several technologies to treat urine exist already, and can be implemented especially in developing areas, where centralized wastewater treatment is missing. The acceptance of urine separation and reuse seem to be more institutional and related to regulation and existing norms, rather than functionality of the treatment technologies or safety of the end-products. Consumers are more willing to accept the urine use as a fertilizer if it is safe and not increasing costs. In this paper these different aspects of urine separation and use as a fertilizer product are discussed.
In Indonesia, the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP), is still focused on food processing, hotels, restaurants, and hospitals, with high costs for standardization. Yogyakarta is notable as a student city, with thousands of students residing there. Unfortunately, Yogyakarta had the third highest number of poisoning cases in Indonesia, and only 40% of Yogyakarta restaurants, including food stalls, were classified as safe. The aim of this study is to investigate HACCP and food hygiene implementation of food stalls around campus in Yogyakarta. Thirty-three food stalls are chosen randomly out of 72 around one of Indonesian largest private universities. Faecal coliform, more specifically E. coli, were identified using Chromocult Coliform Agar. The observation sheet referred to the Minister Health Decree of Indonesia, i.e. KepMenKes RI No. 1098/Menkes/SK/VII/2003, was used to investigate each food stall. Furthermore, in-depth interviews with the food handlers were performed. The implementation of HACCP on food stalls was defined using qualitative analysis. The critical points in the eight phases of food stall services have been established based on the observed results. Each phase has the potential to introduce biological, chemical, and physical hazards. Approximately 56.05% of food handlers lack hygiene knowledge, behaviour, and attitude, such as the less awareness to wash their hand, being reckless to wear an apron, mask, head cover, and so on. Moreover, none of the food stalls examined have a lavatory for hand washing, especially for customers, and not have insect and rodent repellent equipment. Due to a lack of awareness about HACCP values, the HACCP implementation of a food stall on campus has yet to be successful. As a result, according to verification data, environmental sanitation, including food and facility sanitation, as well as personal hygiene, is becoming a critical factor in HACCP implementation. Further investigation, E. coli is found in meal samples of food stall.
An industry that can meet the criteria of environmental friendliness, social acceptability, and economic success can be considered sustainable. The tofu industry in Indonesia is growing with the increase in tofu consumption. One of the tofu industry problems, particularly in Indonesia, is the high water use that also generates a high volume of wastewater. On the other hand, since most tofu industries in Indonesia are small-scale with limited capital and technical capabilities, the wastewater from the tofu industry is often discharged without treatment and create environmental pollutions. Due to this potential environmental problem, it is important to assess the sustainability of the tofu industry. This study aimed to determine the sustainability status of the small-scale tofu industry in Indonesia. A tofu producing cluster in Giriharja Hamlet, Sumedang, Indonesia, was used as a case study. The water and wastewater management in Giriharja was influenced by an anaerobic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that treats the tofu wastewater. This study used the rapid appraisal for fisheries (Rapfish) technique based on ordination using the multidimensional scaling approach to assess the three dimensions of sustainable development: environmental, social, and economic. Data was collected through direct observation, questionnaires, interviews, and groundwater quality analysis. The results show that the overall sustainability status of the tofu industry in Giriharja was quite sustainable, with a value of 71.5%. The tofu industry had taken the right direction toward sustainability by reducing waste pollution load, not harming local communities, and supporting the economy. On the other hand, the high water consumption is still concerning. To improve its sustainability status, the tofu industry must reduce water consumption and might utilize the effluent of anaerobic WWTP e.g., for agriculture. The lack of maintenance funding might put the WWTP operation at risk, therefore, government support is required.
An existing anaerobic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Giriharja Hamlet, Indonesia, processes approximately 20–40 m3/day of tofu whey. The WWTP effluent (tofu wastewater-anaerobic digestion effluent, TW-ADE) is an alternative water source for agriculture in the area, particularly during water shortages. However, farmers’ acceptance and willingness to use TW-ADE are essential considerations. This study aimed to identify the perception of Giriharja Hamlet farmers on the quality, quantity, and potential benefits of TW-ADE and evaluate factors that influence farmers’ perceptions of the potential benefits of TW-ADE. Likert scale and ordinal logistic regression models were used to assess farmer perceptions and the factors that influence them. Farmer perceptions and the factors that influenced were obtained through interviews and the data analyzed using the Likert scale and ordinal logistic regression models. Most of the respondents (88%) agreed that TW-ADE had an unpleasant odor, but 56% of respondents agreed that it no longer caused pollution to the environment. The TW-ADE potential benefits assessment shows the farmers tended to doubt the potential benefits of TW-ADE for fertilizer content and suitability as irrigation water. The age factor (36−60 years old) had a positive acceptance of the potential benefits of TW-ADE. On the other hand, ≤ five years of farming experience factor and agricultural land area factor (≤ 0.25 ha and 0.26–0.50 ha) negatively influences farmers’ perceptions of the potential benefits of TW-ADE. The results conclude that experienced farmers have good perceptions of the potential benefits, and inexperienced young farmers do not. Therefore, to plan workshops or meetings in this area, it is advisable to invite experienced farmers as speakers. In other words, the results suggest that experienced farmers are the key people for the sustainable implementation of treated TW-ADE in Giriharja Hamlet.
Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is important for the health and well-being of women and girls. In low- and middle-income countries, females face challenges with MHM due to a lack of knowledge and education on MHM, unavailability of menstrual products, and poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities. Poor MHM has negative impacts on both the health of females and the environment. This study aimed to examine women’s menstrual status and identify existing problems related to MHM, such as the use and disposal of menstrual materials, in an urban slum of Indonesia. We conducted a survey using a questionnaire to interview 32 adult women living in a densely populated area of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The questionnaire included both demographic information and 19 items related to MHM. Regarding physical health aspects, the majority of participants had a normal menstrual cycle and bleeding duration. Disposable sanitary napkins were preferred products for collecting menstrual blood, although some women reported that they were expensive. However, the daily frequency of changing menstrual products was low, and there was a risk of infectious diseases and other health problems. Regarding the disposal of used napkins, a few women removed some parts of the napkins and threw them into a toilet, which probably has negative impacts on sanitation facilities and the environment. In addition, all participants washed their used napkins with water before disposing them. This study showed that participants’ menstrual status was good, but there were problems related to the use and disposal of napkins. An immediate solution for poor MHM in terms of women’s future reproductive health and environmental protection is needed.