A chemical substance is often substituted for another to reduce risks caused by the original substance. However, the replacement may be associated with new risks, which introduces a risk tradeoff problem. Although the concept of risk tradeoff analysis has been proposed, no feasible method has been developed. In this study a new assessment method was proposed based on relative risk comparison among substances through an examination of some possible approaches. Case studies were also conducted to assess the efficacy of this method.
In this study, we normatively discuss the road map scenario to improve the management system of standards and then to improve the national innovation system. In AIST, there are many research projects of standards’ generation, but the research about the management of established standards is rare. For this purpose, factors related to the lifespan of de jure standards are examined. We especially focus on the effect of technological categories of standards on lifespans. Under the system used by the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee, the review period for standards is five years, and it has not been changed for several decades. The system of ISO has been in the same situation for several decades as that of Japan Industrial Standards (JIS). By using the record of about 4500 JIS standards, the de jure standards of some industrial technology areas are shown to have a tendency toward longer lifespans. Depending on the obtained study results, we proposed a road map scenario to improve the national innovation system through the management of standards, which incurs less administrative costs and makes timely market creation.
A quarter century has passed since the principle of EUPS (extreme UV excited photoelectron spectroscopy) was invented as the most promising application of a laser-produced plasma source. EUPS enables analysis of electronic states of the topmost atomic layer, band bending of semiconductors, estimation of carrier density, and evaluation of electrical conductivity from secondary electron signals. These newly emerged analyses provide useful information for developing catalysts, protective insulators and other materials. These new analyses were born when problems needed to be solved were brought in by users. We can say that EUPS was sophisticated by the needs of users. In this paper we describe the historical background leading to the invention of the principle of EUPS, the selection and development of the component technologies those constitute the EUPS system, and the birth processes of novel analyses those emerged.
First, we present issues in Japanese forestry based on an explanation of the specific properties of Japanese forestry. Then, taking the revitalization of Japanese forestry as a goal, we present a scenario for the achievement of that goal and comment on the type of research that is needed for it. This includes descriptions of the positioning and role of the technical development currently undertaken by the authors. As a concrete example of machine development, we report on the details of a manipulator for cutting down trees, “TATSUMI”, and the results of verification tests. The TATSUMI manipulator is a machine that is compact and lightweight enough to be carried by a single worker. This machine cuts down trees using mountable/dismountable chainsaws that are commonly available at forestry sites. We also discuss new design methods for machine development that were identified as suitable for the mountain forests of Japan.