In foreign cities, the promulgation of bike-sharing systems is remarkable. Numerous dedicated bike-sharing stations are provided in urban areas. Anyone can borrow a bike anywhere and return it to any station. In Japan, this is designated as a community cycle system. In recent years, many cities are introducing this system. We examined a bike-sharing system operated by Setagaya ward, Tokyo, which is a pioneering case in Japan. This study was conducted to identify the following two points from results of a questionnaire survey distributed to users:bike-sharing system utilization characteristics;and its roles and future tasks to be fulfilled for transportation in Setagaya ward. Results yielded the following findings. The bike-sharing system of Setagaya ward has been used as a terminal transportation by which ward residents can commute to and from their job sites and schools located outside the ward. People living outside the ward can use it to come and return to those located in the ward. They decided to use this system for the following reasons and appreciated the following points:advantages from expense aspects, securement of parking spaces and particularly shortening of the time to reach a destination as an improvement of the inconvenience of moving. Many users changed their movement mode from walking, use of their own bicycle, and public transportation to the bike-sharing system. This corresponds to the origin and destination of commuting using the railroad and represents Setagaya ward area characteristics. Accordingly, with the Setagaya ward bike-sharing system, many users returned the bicycle to the same bike-sharing station from which they had borrowed it. However, users with no job and users who do not commute, and those who use bicycles on holidays often returned the bicycle to a bike-sharing station different from the one from which they borrowed it. This is a specific feature of the bike-sharing system. Furthermore, results of an assessment conducted after users began utilization show that many users change borrowing stations and return the bicycle to the station appropriately depending on their situations and purposes.
There exist two monuments at Tohni-cho in Kamaishi-city (Iwate pref.) built by Kasai Masahiro in 1814, in the commemoration of the land survey carried out by Inoh Tadataka in 1801. The decipherment and its interpretation were made out in previous paper Tamura, (2000). Kasai has described about the gradual fine motion of the earth which was the concept of European astronomy for that days. Tamura (2000) proposed the interpretation about such gradual fine motion as the nutation which was the concept inported from Europe. Kasai desired to confirm that, but it was not possible due to insufficient precesion of measurement of Latitude. He requested to the future generation about the confirmation on the gradual fine motion of the earth. This is the third paper on these monuments. The author intends to make the profile of the erector Kasai Masahiro, as well as to investigate the background of Kasai’s learning about European Astronomy. The motive for this paper is due to the discovery of Inoh-daizu in USA and to make public in 2004 as well as the recent discovery of the map of Tohni village at Meiji era. The new information obtained from newly found maps give us to should revise previous basic facts. We obtained Kasai’s family history and suspect his personal circumstances at the time of Inoh’s land survey. The one of subjects of this paper is to clarify Kasai’s learning on Astronomy where and when. Several key persons are investigated about their personal relationships with Kasai Masahiro. We suspected that the place of Kasai’s learning should be Sendai based upon his exchange with his acquaintance and scholars.