This paper presents a parameter estimation of continuous-time polytopic models for a linear parameter varying (LPV) system. The prediction error method of linear time invariant (LTI) models is modified for polytopic models. The modified prediction error method is applied to an LPV aircraft system that has flight velocity as the varying parameter and stability and control derivatives (SCDs) as the model parameters. In an identification simulation, the polytopic model is more suitable for expressing the behaviors of the LPV aircraft system than the LTI model from the viewpoints of time and frequency responses. The SCDs of the initial polytopic model are adjusted to fit the model output to the output-data obtained from the LPV aircraft system.
This paper proposes a guidance method for gliding aircraft by using onboard computers to calculate a near-optimal trajectory in real-time, and thereby expanding the reachable domain. The results are applicable to advanced aircraft and future space transportation systems that require high safety. The calculation load of the optimal control problem that is used to maximize the reachable domain is too large for current computers to calculate in real-time. Thus the optimal control problem is divided into two problems: a gliding distance maximization problem in which the aircraft motion is limited to a vertical plane, and an optimal turning flight problem in a horizontal direction. First, the former problem is solved using a shooting method. It can be solved easily because its scale is smaller than that of the original problem, and because some of the features of the optimal solution are obtained in the first part of this paper. Next, in the latter problem, the optimal bank angle is computed from the solution of the former; this is an analytical computation, rather than an iterative computation. Finally, the reachable domain obtained from the proposed near-optimal guidance method is compared with that obtained from the original optimal control problem.
The aerodynamic characteristics of paraglider canopy cells were examined using an inflatable cell model with rigid ribs, which was proposed in our previous paper. The model is constructed by rapping the side edges of an appropriately shaped thin vinyl sheet along the perimeter of two parallel airfoil-shaped rigid ribs, and the wind tunnel experiment utilizing it represents a cell of an infinite array of identical cells placed in a uniform stream. The three-dimensional, inflated surface profile and surface pressure distribution of an inflatable cell model with a large air-intake opening were measured to characterize aerodynamic characteristics due to the inflation of upper and lower surfaces. The underlying physics were also explored in detail.
To determine the parameters which can improve the overall performance of a paraglider wing canopy, we have been investigating the fundamental aerodynamic characteristics of an inflatable cell model which is designed to represent the dynamic behaviors of each cell comprising the wing canopy. This paper describes the results of a series of wind tunnel experiments. It is shown that significant drag reduction can be achieved by adopting an appropriately designed shape for the soft cloth comprising the upper surface. A trade-off relationship between the aerodynamic quality (characterized by the lift-to-drag ratio) and structural strength (characterized by the internal air pressure coefficient) of the canopy is also examined in detail.
Based on the experimental observations using a liquid-gas coaxial injector with fairly dense liquid injection, an empirical calculation model of the breakup length of a liquid jet was derived. It is based on the one-dimensional momentum conservation equation for two-phase flow, as well as on the critical Eötvös number, which was derived experimentally by the author in a previous study. This model was applied to evaluate the local stripping rate of the liquid mass at the interaction surface between a liquid and a gas, and was applied to calculate the size of the formed droplets. Comparisons of the mean droplet size, distribution histogram of the size, and breakup length of the liquid jet were made with experimental data. This calculation model was also applied to evaluate the characteristics of the rocket injectors chosen as candidates for the LE-5, the liquid oxygen/hydrogen engine of the second stage of the Japanese H-1 launcher.
In this paper, the design optimization procedure of a three-element wing setting is discussed. The positions of elements are determined using a response surface method based on the Kriging model. The Kriging model is updated based on expected improvement (EI) value maximization in the design space using a distributed genetic algorithm (DGA). Sample points for the Kriging model are evaluated using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulation (RANS). The present method is applied successfully for the optimization, where the objective function is to maximize the lift-to-drag ratio (L⁄D).
The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of neighboring blade rows on the unsteady aerodynamic response of oscillating cascade blades on the basis of a genuine three-dimensional model. To this end, mathematical formulations based on the lifting surface theory are developed for a pair of contra-rotating annular cascades of oscillating blades. The mechanism of frequency scattering of blade loadings and mode scattering of acoustic waves resulting from interaction between the blade rows in relative rotational motions is mathematically explained. Simultaneous integral equations for all frequency components of blade loadings are derived from the flow tangency condition on the blade surfaces of both blade rows. The validity of the computation codes is verified.
The unsteady aerodynamic force and work for contra-rotating annular cascades of oscillating blades are numerically investigated. A comparison among frequency components of unsteady blade loadings on oscillating blades and stationary blades in relative rotational motion is conducted. It is proved that the state of generated acoustic duct mode of the lowest order is a key factor governing the aeroacoustic interaction between the blade rows. The effect of the neighboring blade row on the aerodynamic force and work is never small and will make substantial modifications to the flutter boundaries of an isolated blade row.