Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease endemic in East Asia. Transmitted to other organisms by infected ticks, the SFTS virus (SFTSV) and is endemic to Nagasaki in western Japan. However, epidemiological information regarding SFTSV in Nagasaki ticks has not been available to date. In this study, we began by examining the sensitivities of SFTSV gene detection by real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation in cultured cells and mice. These methods could detect SFTSV in the samples containing more than 4 × 100 ffu. Next, we attempted to isolate SFTSV and to detect viral gene in 2,222 nymph and adult ticks collected from May to August 2013 among seven regions of Nagasaki. However, neither virus isolation nor viral gene detection were confirmed in the tick pools. SFTSV positivity rates are considered to be very low in ticks, and viral loads are also very limited. Further investigations increasing the number of ticks and including larval samples as well as improved detection methods, may be required to find SFTSV-positive ticks in this region.
Congenital syphilis (CS) is a public health burden in both developing and developed countries. We report two cases of CS in premature neonates with severe clinical manifestations; Patient 1 (gestational age 31 weeks, birth weight 1423 g) had disseminated idiopathic coagulation (DIC) while Patient 2 (gestational age 34 weeks and 6 days, birth weight 2299 g) had refractory syphilitic meningitis. Their mothers were single and had neither received antenatal care nor undergone syphilis screening. Both neonates were delivered via an emergency cesarean section and had birth asphyxia and transient tachypnea of newborn. Physical examination revealed massive hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory testing of maternal and neonatal blood showed increased rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer and positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. Diagnosis of CS was further supported by a positive IgM fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test and large amounts of T. pallidum spirochetes detected in the placenta. Each neonate was initially treated with ampicillin and cefotaxime for early bacterial sepsis/meningitis that coexisted with CS. Patient 1 received fresh frozen plasma and antithrombin III to treat DIC. Patient 2 experienced a relapse of CS during initial antibiotic treatment, necessitating parenteral penicillin G. Treatment was effective in both neonates, as shown by reductions in RPR. Monitoring of growth and neurological development through to age 4 showed no evidence of apparent delay or complications. Without adequate antenatal care and maternal screening tests for infection, CS is difficult for non-specialists to diagnose at birth, because the clinical manifestations are similar to those of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Ampicillin was insufficient for treating CS and penicillin G was necessary.
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestodes. In addition to the clinical findings and the imaging analysis, the results of immunological tests are informative for the diagnosis of NCC. To compare the usefulness of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for antibody detection, paired serum and CSF samples from patients with NCC and other neurological diseases were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with low-molecular-weight antigens purified from T. solium cyst fluid in a blinded fashion. The sensitivity of both serum and CSF samples was 25.0% in inactive NCC cases (n = 4) and 90.9% in active NCC cases (n = 33), and the specificity of serum and CSF was 100% and 95.8%, respectively. When the serum and CSF samples were combined, the sensitivity in active NCC cases became 100%. There was no difference in test performance between serum and CSF samples. Based on these results, we recommend the detection of specific antibodies in serum for the diagnosis of active NCC because of the ease of collection. When the antibody test is negative, however, CSF should be used to confirm NCC and to rule out other medical disorders of the central nervous system. Antibody detection test using only serum or CSF has a limited diagnostic value and cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of suspected inactive NCC cases.
Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide, and globally licensed vaccines are available. To expedite the introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the national immunisation programme, a simple, ecological method to monitor changes in the burden of rotavirus disease may be of great help. Here, we report an application of a time-series analysis on a publicly-available dataset in Japan on the weekly number of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus-positive samples over the last 5 year period between the 36th week of 2009 and the 35th week of 2014 during which rotavirus vaccines became marketed in Japan and presumed to reach an uptake rate of at least 39% as a national average. Compared with the expected number of rotavirus detection based on the preceding four rotavirus seasons, the number of rotavirus detection during the 2013–2014 season was 42.9% (95% CI: 38.6, 47.8). This suggests that the use of rotavirus vaccine had a positive impact on reducing the burden of rotavirus diarrhoea in Japan. This method, because of its simplicity and little cost, should be applicable to early detection of the impact of rotavirus vaccine even in resource-poor countries where the World Health Organization funded and implemented the sentinel surveillance programmes of laboratory-confirmed rotavirus cases.
Background: Sepsis is one of the most common causes of neonatal hospital admissions and is estimated to cause 26% of all neonatal deaths worldwide. While waiting for results of blood culture, it is necessary to initiate an empirical choice of antibiotics based on the epidemiology of causative agents and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in a locality. Objective: To determine the major causative organisms of neonatal sepsis at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH), as well as their antibiotic sensitivity patterns, with the aim of formulating treatment protocols for neonates. Methods: Within a 27-month period (1st of October 2011 to the 31st of December 2013), results of blood culture for all neonates screened for sepsis at the Special Care Baby Unit of the hospital were retrospectively studied. Results: Two hundred and thirty-three (49.6%) of the 450 neonates admitted were screened for sepsis. Ninety-seven (43.5%) of them were blood culture positive, with 52 (53.6%) of the isolated organisms being Gram positive and 45 (46.4%) Gram negative. The most frequently isolated organism was Staphylococcus aureus (51.5%) followed by Escherichia coli (16.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.4%). All isolated organisms demonstrated the highest sensitivity to the quinolones. Conclusion: Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity among neonates admitted at the NDUTH. There is a need for regular periodic surveillance of the causative organisms of neonatal sepsis as well as their antibiotic susceptibility pattern to inform the empirical choice of antibiotic prescription while awaiting blood culture results.
Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is generally responsive to medical treatment, and early diagnosis and management can prevent unnecessary surgical intervention. However, intravenous therapy is needed for severe forms of tuberculosis with extensive gastrointestinal involvement. The authors report an immunocompetent patient with gastrointestinal TB who was successfully managed with a combination of surgical intervention and anti-TB medications, and discuss the importance of injectable anti-TB medications in the management of severe gastrointestinal TB. The present case report provides a model for assessment and intervention in severe forms of gastrointestinal TB.
Leprosy leads to chronic granulomatous inflammation in skin and peripheral nerves that can lead to sensory, motor and autonomic impairments. Autonomic dysfunctions may result in dryness and cracking of the skin. In this study, we present the use of ozone provided by a high-frequency device to treat hand ulcers (wounds) in an 80-year-old man who was diagnosed as multibacillary in 2007. In the first visit, the patient was evaluated and received verbal and written instructions about self-care. Treatment consisted of five sessions, once per week. The ozone provided by a high-frequency device seemed to be useful in the treatment of ulcers, thus, contributing to the healing process. Research that investigates the use of high frequencies in the treatment of ulcers associated or not with other interventions (self-care strategies, protective clothing, adapted tools and footwear adaptation) is strongly recommended.