The Standard for the Exchange of Nonclinical Data (SEND), adopted by the US FDA, is part of a set of regulations and guidances requiring the submission of standardized electronic study data for nonclinical and clinical data submissions. SEND is the nonclinical implementation of SDTM (Study Data Tabulation Model), the standard electronic format for clinical regulatory submissions to FDA. SEND, SDTM, and the associated Controlled Terminology have been developed by CDISC (Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium). In order to successfully implement SEND, interdisciplinary contributions between sponsors and CROs, need a model for task allocation. This is being undertaken by the Pharmaceutical Users Software Exchange (PhUSE). Because SEND is currently the preferred submission format of the US FDA only and will become required by it starting in December 2016, only American academic societies and companies are actively involved. An exception to this is the INHAND initiative, which leads the way in standardizing terminology for toxicological pathology. On the other hand, international globalization of other clinical and nonclinical practices is not feasible because there are substantial differences between the US and non-US countries in CRO involvement in drug development. Thus, non-US countries must consider and develop approaches to SEND that meet their needs. This paper summarizes the activities of the major organizations involved in SEND development and implementation, discusses the effective use of SEND, and details a compliance scheme (research material of the Showa University School of Medicine) illustrating how pharmaceutical companies can complete a large amount of work up to an FDA application with the effective utilization of CROs and solution providers.
To evaluate the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) in removing uranium and protecting animals from uranium toxicity, we intramuscularly administered 1 mg/kg of uranyl nitrate to 8-wk-old male SD rats, and 20 min after administration of uranyl nitrate, the animals were given a single oral administration of SB at 0.1, 0.3 or 1 g/kg. The SB treatment at a dose of 0.3 g/kg or more raised the pH of the rats’ urine until 4 h after treatment, and it significantly reduced the uranium amounts in the kidneys at 1 day after treatment. In another experiment, rats were intramuscularly administered 1 mg/kg of uranyl nitrate, and 20 min later, the animals were treated with sodium bicarbonate (0.1 or 1 g/kg). The rats were autopsied at 1, 3 and 7 days after uranium treatment. High-dose SB resulted in a significant increase in urinary uranium excretion in the first 24 h and a reduction of uranium deposition in the kidneys and femurs, and it also significantly suppressed uranium-induced renal toxicity, as shown by both histopathology and clinical chemistry at 3 days after uranium treatment. Low-dose SB did not show such marked effects. Our findings demonstrated that the uranium decorporation effect of sodium bicarbonate was observed at the dosage showing urine alkalinization in rats and that decorporation effect of sodium bicarbonate might be beneficial if it is administered immediately after incorporation of soluble uranium.
We previously investigated rabbit hereditary cerebellar cortical degenerative disease, called cerebellar cortical abiotrophy in the veterinary field, and determined that the pathogenesis of this disease is the result of failed synaptogenesis between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells. In this study, longitudinal changes in the development and atrophy of the cerebellum of rabbits with hereditary abiotrophy after birth were morphometrically examined (postnatal day [PD] 15 and 42) using image analysis. Although development of the cerebellum in rabbits with abiotrophy was observed from PD 15 to PD 42, the growth rate of the cerebellum was less than that in normal rabbits. In rabbits with abiotrophy, the number of granular cells undergoing apoptosis was significantly higher at PD 15 and dramatically decreased at PD 42. The number of granular cells did not increase from PD 15 to 42. The synaptogenesis peak at PD 15 occurred when the largest number of apoptotic granular cells in rabbits with abiotrophy was observed. Although 26% to 36% of parallel fiber terminals formed synaptic junctions with Purkinje cell spines, the remainder did not at PD 15 and 42. The rate of failure of synaptogenesis in the present study might be specific to this case of abiotrophy. Morphometric analysis revealed detailed changes in development and atrophy in animals with postnatal cerebellar disease occurring soon after birth.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signal pathway contributes to the carcinogenesis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) induced by 3’-methyl-4 dimethylaminoazobenzene (3’Me-DAB) in rats. EGFR, TGFα, STAT3 and p-STAT3 in different stages of carcinogenesis were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In situ hybridization (ISH) was applied to investigate the expression of STAT3 mRNA. Oval cells were verified by the immunohistochemical staining of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), CD133 and epithelial cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM). Sequential development of necrosis, oval cell proliferation, cholangiofibrosis (CF) and ICC was observed in the liver of rats administered 3’Me-DAB. Oval cells showed positive expression of AFP, CD133 and EpCAM. The expression of EGFR was significantly higher in the ICC than in oval cells, CF or normal bile ducts (p<0.05), but there was no difference in EGFR expression between the other groups. The highest expression of p-STAT3 and TGFα was observed in CF. The expression of these two molecules in the ICC and oval cells was significantly higher than in normal bile ducts (p<0.05). Elevation of STAT3 mRNA was detected during carcinogenesis as shown by ISH, strong intensity was observed in the ICC and moderate intensity was observed in oval cells and CF. These observations suggest that the EGFR and STAT3 signal pathway contributes to the carcinogenesis of ICC. High activity of STAT3 during the carcinogenesis of ICC may be the result of high activity of EGFR triggered by TGFα.
We experienced obstructive nephropathy in F344 rats treated with DL-potassium hydrogen tartrate (PHT) in a 13-week oral repeated dose toxicity study. Six-week-old male and female F344/DuCrj rats were fed a diet containing up to 2.0% PHT for 13 weeks. Microscopical findings including irregular dilation of the distal tubule lumen, foreign body giant cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, and regeneration of renal tubules were observed focally or multifocally in the renal cortex and/or medulla in the 0.5% and higher dosage groups of both sexes. The severity of these lesions increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the urinalysis, an increase in protein and white blood cells or the concentration of tartaric acid was detected in the 0.5% PHT and higher dosage groups of both sexes or males, respectively, though conventional blood biochemical analysis did not indicate failure of renal function. These results indicate that the PHT induces obstructive nephropathy in rats. There were no other treatment-related changes in other organs.
A 90-day oral toxicity test in rats was performed to evaluate the toxicity of 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB), a unique radiolytic product of stearic acid. Six-week-old male and female F344 rats (n=15/group) were given 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 12, 60 and 300 ppm in a powder diet for 13 weeks. Slight dose-dependent increases in serum total protein and albumin in male rats were found, but these changes were not considered to be a toxic effect. The fasting, but not non-fasting, blood glucose levels of the male rats in the 300 ppm group and female rats in the 60 and 300 ppm groups were lower than those of the controls. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed dose-dependent accumulation of 2-tDCB in adipose tissue, notably in males. Next, we performed an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced two-stage carcinogenesis study. After injection of 6-week-old male F344 rats (n=30/group) once a week for 3 weeks, the animals received 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 10, 50 and 250 ppm in a powder diet for 25 weeks. The incidences of colon tumors for the 2-tDCB dosages were 34%, 45%, 40% and 37%, respectively, and were not statistically significant. These data suggest that 2-tDCB shows no toxic or tumor-modifying effects under the present conditions, and that the no-observed-adverse-effect level for 2-tDCB is 300 ppm in both sexes, equivalent to 15.5 mg/kg b.w./day in males and 16.5 mg/kg b.w./day in females.
Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) is mutagenic but noncarcinogenic in the murine colon. Recently, we reported rapid induction of colonic tumors by treatment of CD2F1 mice with BP (125 mg/kg for 5 days) followed by a colitis inducer, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) (4% in drinking water for 1 or 2 weeks). However, there are no reports on detailed time course and histopathological features of colonic proliferative lesions in this model. Here, we show the detailed time course of colonic dysplasia, adenoma and adenocarcinoma induced by treatment with BP, DSS, and a combination of the two (BP/DSS). In the colon of mice exposed to BP/DSS, 14.6 dysplastic foci per mouse were present one week after DSS treatment (week 4). The number of dysplastic foci decreased with time to 3.1 at week 9 and thereafter remained almost constant. At week 4, 1.5 adenocarcinomas were also observed, with a marked increase in numbers with time, reaching 29.3 at week 14. In contrast, the number of dysplastic foci induced by DSS alone showed a time course similar to that following BP/DSS treatment; however, only a few tumors appeared. Neither dysplastic foci nor neoplastic lesions were induced by BP only. In mice exposed to BP/DSS, β-catenin was demonstrated immunohistochemically in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm of the tumor cells, and this translocation from the cell membrane was evident in subsets of dysplastic foci. In dysplastic foci induced by DSS alone, β-catenin was absent in the nucleus/cytoplasm. These finding suggest that aberrant β-catenin accumulation in dysplastic foci is associated with tumor progression in this BP/DSS model.
This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog.