The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not fully understood, but many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a key role. The methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) administration model can reproduce histopathological features of human NASH and is widely used for investigating NASH. C57BL/6J mice have been used in many studies, but strain differences in pathogenesis have not been sufficiently investigated. We administred MCD to two mouse strains and then compared difference between strains and investigated the effects of β-caryophyllene (BCP), which possesses an antioxidant effect, on development and progression of NASH. ICR and C57BL/6J mice were administred a control diet, MCD, MCD containing 0.02% BCP, or MCD containing 0.2% BCP. After 4 or 8 weeks, mice were sacrificed. In both strains, MCD administration induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. These lesions were more severe in C57BL/6J mice than ICR mice, and liver fibrosis was observed at 8 weeks in C57BL/6J mice. These changes were attenuated by BCP coadministration. The mRNA expression of monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCP)-1 and fibrosis-related factors increased in C57BL/6J mice, and these increases were reduced by BCP coadministration. The mRNA expression of antioxidant-related factors decreased in both strains, and these decreases were attenuated by BCP coadministration. Based on these results, the C57BL/6J mouse was a more suitable model for MCD-induced NASH than the ICR mouse. In addition, it was suggested that antioxidant effect of BCP might suppressed the damage of hepatocytes caused by oxidative stress and following inflammation and fibrosis.
Alpha2u-globulin is an adult male rat-specific protein that accumulates spontaneously or inductively in the renal proximal tubular epithelium and forms microscopically observable deposits, which are generally referred to as “hyaline droplets,” whereas a specific type of deposits is referred to as “eosinophilic bodies” by Japanese toxicologic pathologists. We compared hyaline droplets and eosinophilic bodies using special stains including immunostaining for α2u-globulin and lysosome-associated membrane protein in spontaneously occurring and d-limonene-induced cases. Eosinophilic bodies appeared simultaneously and increased in parallel with the hyaline droplets in the induced case. In both of the spontaneous and induced cases, hyaline droplets and eosinophilic bodies were associated with α2u-globulin and lysosomes, although there were differences in the forms and staining properties that probably reflected the purity or density of α2u-globulin. According to the results, it is not necessary for eosinophilic bodies to be strictly distinguished from hyaline droplets, and it is reasonable to identify eosinophilic bodies as hyaline droplets in α2u-globulin nephropathy in routine toxicity studies, as they have been recognized to be a sequence of changes associated with accumulation of α2u-globulin.
For the purpose of clarifying the histopathological effects of methotrexate (MTX) on medaka testes, wild-type and homogenic p53-deficient male medaka at 4 to 6 months post-hatching were exposed to 0.25 mg/ml of MTX for 96 h with histopathological examination of testes at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. At 72 and 96 h after the start of MTX exposure, numerous apoptotic cells were observed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes, and the pyknotic cell rate and the TUNEL-positive and cleaved caspase-3-positive rates in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of MTX-treated wild type medaka were higher compared with those in the control wild-type medaka. Starting at 48 h, the phospho-histone H3-positive rate in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of was significantly lower in MTX-treated wild-type medaka than in control wild-type medaka. In homogenic p53-deficient medaka, apoptosis was not induced in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes by exposure to MTX. Starting at 48 h, the phospho-histone H3-positive rate in spermatogonia and spermatocytes of MTX-treated homogenic p53-deficient medaka was lower than in control homogenic p53-deficient medaka. Throughout the entire experimental period, there were no significant differences in phospho-histone H3-positive rates in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes between the MTX-treated homogenic p53-deficient medaka group and the MTX-treated wild-type medaka group. In the present study, spermatogonia and spermatocytes of medaka testes were sensitive to MTX at 0.25 mg/ml in the culture water, and MTX-induced apoptosis in the testes was dependent on p53 expression; however, inhibition of MTX-induced cell proliferation was independent of p53 expression.
The Styela clava tunic (SCT) is known as a good raw material for preparing anti-inflammatory compounds, wound healing films, guided bone regeneration, and food additives. To investigate whether ethanol extracts of the SCT (EtSCT) could protect against hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in ICR mice, alterations in serum biochemical indicators, histopathology, hepatic apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were observed in ICR mice pretreated with EtSCT for 5 days before CCl4 injection. EtSCT contained 15.6 mg/g of flavonoid and 37.5 mg/g phenolic contents with high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (93.3%) and metal chelation activity (46.5%). The EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups showed decreased levels of ALT, LDH, and AST, indicating toxicity and a necrotic area in the liver, while the level of ALP remained constant. The formation of active caspase-3 and enhancement of Bax/Bcl-2 expression was effectively inhibited in the EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups. Furthermore, the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the phosphorylation of p38 in the TNF-α downstream signaling pathway rapidly recovered in the EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups. The EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups showed a significant decrease in hepatic fibrosis markers including collagen accumulation, MMP-2 expression, TGF-β1 concentration, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Moreover, a significant decline in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression were observed in the EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups. Taken together, these results indicate that EtSCT can protect against hepatic injury induced by CCl4-derived reactive intermediates through the suppression of hepatic apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.
Exposure to zinc oxide (ZnO) has been linked to adverse health effects, but the renal effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the renal toxicity of inhaled ZnONPs. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to occupationally relevant levels of 1.1 (low dose) and 4.9 mg/m3 (high dose) ZnONPs or high-efficiency particulate arresting-filtered air (HEPA-FA) via inhalation for 2 weeks. Histopathological examinations of rat kidneys were performed at 24 hours, 7 days, and 1 month after exposure. A significant increase in microscopic inflammatory foci with pronounced periglomerular inflammation and interstitial lymphocytic infiltration was found in rats exposed to low and high doses of ZnONPs compared with rats exposed to HEPA-FA at the three time points following 2 weeks of exposure. Tubulitis featuring lymphocytic infiltrate within the tubular epithelium was found after 24 hours but had disappeared at 7 and 30 days in both the low- and high-dose exposure groups. Our findings demonstrate that inhaled ZnONPs cause sustained renal periglomerular and interstitial inflammation through lymphocytic infiltration. These findings provide histopathological evidence regarding sustained renal inflammation of nanoparticle exposure in rats and may provide some insight into the occupational health effects of ZnONPs on exposed workers.
Patchy thickening and reddish discoloration of active hair growth areas of skin in rabbits are occasionally found, and this gross feature could affect precise evaluation when conducting a dermal irritation test. Since little is known about the mechanism of this phenomenon, we examined the dorsal skin of New Zealand White rabbits morphologically and immunohistochemically in order to identify the possible mechanism responsible for developing these skin changes in relation to the hair cycle. Skin samples from 4 rabbits were divided into three groups (5 samples/group) based on their macroscopic characteristics: a thickened skin, erythematous skin, and smooth skin group. Histomorphological examination revealed that the percentage of hair follicles in the anagen phase, hair follicle length, hair follicle area, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the hair follicles were greater in the thickened skin and erythematous skin groups than in the smooth skin group. Unlike mice and rats, the dermis was nearly adjacent to the muscular layer with a thin hypodermis, and the whole lengths of hair follicles in the anagen phase were located in the dermis in the rabbit skin. These results suggest that large hair follicles in the anagen phase compressed the surrounding dermis; therefore, the skin was grossly raised and showed thickening. A higher number of CD31-positive blood vessels, suggesting the occurrence of angiogenesis, was observed around the hair follicles in the erythematous skin group, and they seemed to affect the reddish discoloration of skin noted grossly.
To our knowledge, this is the first report on basal cell carcinoma with lung metastasis in a rat. A 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rat presented ulceration of the oral mucosa with surrounding tumor growth and white nodules in the lung. Microscopically, the mass showed solid, sheet-like growth with a partially lobular pattern and invaded the gingival mucosa, maxilla, and nasal submucosa. The nuclei of tumor cells were round to oval in shape with basophilic cytoplasm and a large number of mitotic figures. The pulmonary nodules were almost identical to the maxillary tumor in histopathological characteristics. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin, vimentin, PCNA, and p63 and negative for desmin, S-100, and αSMA. Based on these results, we diagnosed the tumor as a maxillary basal cell carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis.
A 20-week-old male Sprague Dawley rat noted with decreased body weight, dyspnea, and anorexia beginning 2 days before death was necropsied in the recovery period of a sub-chronic toxicity study. The heart was severely enlarged (30 × 20 × 20 mm), 3–4 times larger than normal, with an approximately 6 mm wide defect in the upper, membranous portion of the ventricular septum. Both ventricles measured 4 mm in thickness, and the right ventricle was 4 times thicker than normal. According to a microscopic examination, the myocardial fibers were severely hypertrophic in the right ventricle and mildly hypertrophic in the left ventricle and septum. Myocardial vacuolation, focal hemorrhages with hemosiderin-laden macrophages, myocardial necrosis, focal fibrosis, hyalinized myocardial fibers, and multifocal adhesive pericarditis were also present. This is the first report concerning severe ventricular septal defects in an adult Sprague Dawley rat with a detailed histopathological examination.
To examine the in vivo responses of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) to arsenic, rats (male, 6 weeks old, Sprague Dawley) were administered a single intraperitoneal dose of 5 mg/kg arsenic trioxide (ATO). The protein was examined in the heart, lung, liver, and brain 6 and 48 hours after administration: a significant response of PML was observed in the brain. Oxidative DNA modification was also observed in the brain as revealed by increased immunoreactivity to anti-8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) antibody. In contrast, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) stain reactivity was only slightly increased, suggesting oxidative cellular stress without apoptotic cell death in the ATO-administered rat brain. Among the DNA damage response pathways, the ATR-Chk1 axis was activated, while the ATM-Chk2 axis was not, implying that the PML response is associated with activation of the ATR-Chk1 DNA repair pathway in the brain.
The aim of this study was to determine the range and incidences of spontaneous microscopic lesions of the pituitary gland in control Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1 mice from 104-week carcinogenicity studies carried out between 1998 and 2010 at Charles River Edinburgh. In both strains of rats and in CD-1 mice, non-proliferative lesions of the pituitary gland were generally uncommon, excluding cysts/pseudocysts (6.42% in Han-Wistar rats, 5.85% in Sprague-Dawley rats, and 2.08% in CD-1 mice). Primary proliferative lesions were most frequently found in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland. Adenomas and carcinomas of the pars distalis were more common in Sprague-Dawley rats (49.33% and 2.85%, respectively) than in Han-Wistar rats (27.29% and 0.21%, respectively), and adenomas in both strains of rats and CD-1 mice exhibited a marked sex predisposition, with females more commonly affected.
To characterize the histomorphologic effects of cadmium on adult newt testes, male Iberian ribbed newts (6 months post-hatching) were intraperitoneally exposed to a single dose of 50 mg/kg of cadmium, with histologic analysis of the testes at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Beginning 24 h after cadmium exposure, apoptosis of spermatogonia and spermatocytes was observed, and congestion was observed in the interstitial vessels of the testes. Throughout the experimental period, the rates of pyknotic cells and TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 positivity were significantly higher in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of cadmium-treated newts compared with control newts. There were no significant differences between cadmium-treated and control newts in phospho-histone H3 positivity in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes. These results suggest that spermatogonia and spermatocytes in adult Iberian ribbed newts are highly sensitive to cadmium. This is the first report of the histomorphologic characteristics of cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction in newts.
In evaluating pathological changes in drug efficacy and toxicity studies, morphometric analysis can be quite robust. In this experiment, we examined whether morphometric changes of major pathological findings in various tissue specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin could be recognized and quantified using image processing software. Using Tissue Studio, hypertrophy of hepatocytes and adrenocortical cells could be quantified based on the method of a previous report, but the regions of red pulp, white pulp, and marginal zones in the spleen could not be recognized when using one setting condition. Using Image-Pro Plus, lipid-derived vacuoles in the liver and mucin-derived vacuoles in the intestinal mucosa could be quantified using two criteria (area and/or roundness). Vacuoles derived from phospholipid could not be quantified when small lipid deposition coexisted in the liver and adrenal cortex. Mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver could be quantified to some extent, except for specimens with many clustered infiltrating cells. Adipocyte size and the mean linear intercept could be quantified easily and efficiently using morphological processing and the macro tool equipped in Image-Pro Plus. These methodologies are expected to form a base system that can recognize morphometric features and analyze quantitatively pathological findings through the use of information technology.