This study was investigated cold tolerance and seed propagation characteristics to support proper control and management of invasive aquatic plants: Hydrocotyle ranunculoides, H. umbellata, and H. verticillata of Hydrocotyle spp. In winter, H. verticillata grew well under soil moisture conditions from wet to dry. The growth of H. umbellata has had adaptability widely with soil moisture condition from 30 cm submerged to a dry. The growth of H. ranunculoides was inhibited significantly under the dry up condition about 12% of volumetric water content in the soil under low temperatures. H. verticillata and H. umbellata produced no seeds. H. ranunculoides produced some seeds, of which approximately 60% were brown. Their seeds of H. ranunculoides have light dormancy, and their germination rate under the constant temperature condition of 15°C was higher than that under alternating temperature of 30°C/23°C or constant temperature of 30°C.
Field studies were conducted in Hiroshima Prefecture in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the sequential application of herbicides for control of red morningglory (Ipomoea coccinea) in narrow-row (30 cm), late-planted soybean. The critical weed-free period ended by the fifth trifoliate leaf stage of soybean at the latest. The sequential application of dimethenamid/linuron mixture or flumioxazin plus alachlor as pre-emergence herbicides, followed by post-emergence application of bentazone plus quizalofop-ethyl at the second trifoliate leaf stage, and finally post-emergence directed application of glufosinate as at the fifth trifoliate leaf stage, suppressed I. coccinea dry weight to < 4 g m−2 under conventional tillage. Bentazone application provided insufficient control of I. coccinea but suppressed its growth, which limited plant growth above the spraying height during subsequent application of glufosinate. Thus, the three herbicide applications that included bentazone decreased dry weight of I. coccinea to only 1–5% of the two herbicide applications without bentazone. Total emergence and mean plant height of I. coccinea under strip tillage at high soil bulk density (1.3 g cm−3) were suppressed by 6–55% and 42–73%, respectively, relative to conventional tillage. Therefore, in high soil bulk density, the sequential application of dimethenamid/linuron mixture or flumioxazin plus alachlor as pre-emergence herbicides followed by a post-emergence directed application of glufosinate at the fifth trifoliate leaf stage of soybean suppressed I. coccinea dry weight to < 7 g m−2, which is comparable to conventional planting with three herbicide applications. These findings suggest that the number of herbicide applications to control I. coccinea can be reduced at high soil bulk density.
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