Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have rapidly spread through clinical units worldwide. This study investigated the epidemiology and resistance profiles of K. pneumoniae strains isolated in central China between 2009 and 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenemase production by these K. pneumoniae strains, and the prevalence of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae was investigated by multilocus sequence typing. Carbapenem resistance has emerged as a major concern in K. pneumoniae infections, as phenotype testing has detected carbapenemases in nearly 20% of isolates. KPC-producing isolates in a local epidemic were clonally related, with ST11 being the reservoir for the blaKPC-2 gene and ESBL genes. During the 6-year collection period, the prevalence of ESBLs was dynamic, and suggested that blaCTX-M-55 might become prevalent in the future. Our findings demonstrate the high prevalence of carbapenemase- and ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in central China and predict a future local epidemic of KPC-2 and CTX-M-55.
Current drug regimens for brucellosis are associated with relatively high rates of therapeutic failure or relapse. Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella spp. has been proposed recently as a potential cause of therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern of Brucellamelitensis clinical isolates by E-test method in Hamadan, west of Iran. In a 15-month period, all patients with suspected brucellosis were enrolled. Blood specimens were collected for diagnosis of brucellosis by BACTEC system and serological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates to 7 antibiotics was assessed by the E-test method. One hundred forty-nine patients with brucellosis were evaluated. 38.3% of cultures of clinical samples were positive for BACTEC system, of which 91.2% were associated with a positive serological test result. No significant associations were found between serology and the culture method. All Brucella isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin. However, decreased sensitivity to rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was found in 35.1% and 3.5% of isolates, respectively. Because of the high rates of intermediate sensitivity to rifampin among Brucella isolates, this drug should be prescribed with caution. We recommend restricting the use of rifampin for treatment of brucellosis except as an alternative drug for special situations.
This study was performed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat, and to analyze the association of genetic types of these bacteria with their geographical distribution and antimicrobial resistance profiles. Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates have been detected, respectively, in 54 and 71 samples out of 100 samples tested. Nine Salmonella serotypes were found, including S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis (33%), Schwarzengrund (12%), Manhattan (9%), and others. Campylobacterjejuni and C. coli were detected in 64 (64%) and 14 (14%) samples, respectively. S. enterica subsp. enterica isolates were very frequently resistant to tetracycline (78.3%) and streptomycin (68.3%). Many C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (90.5%), nalidixic acid (47.3%), ampicillin (45.9%), and ciprofloxacin (40.5%). Cluster analysis was performed for the Salmonella isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. For Campylobacter isolates, the cluster analysis was based on both PFGE and comparative genomic fingerprinting. The molecular typing results were compared with the information about antimicrobial resistance and geographical locations in which the poultry meat was produced. This analysis revealed that C. jejuni strains with a particular genotype and antimicrobial resistance profile are spreading in specific areas of Japan.
To determine the seroprevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) and identify potential risk factors in non-endemic areas, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a healthy population without previously reported SFTS in a mountainous area of Anhui Province. We recruited and collected blood samples from 270 participants in 4 age groups. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SFTSV. The overall seropositive rate of SFTSV-IgG among study participants was 6.3% (17/270). We found a significant difference in the SFTSV seropositivity rate between tea pluckers (9.4%, 14/149) and non-tea pluckers (2.5%, 3/121). An increasing trend in the seropositivity rate was found with age for all participants (1.5% to 14.3%) and tea pluckers (2.8% to 19.4%). The SFTSV seropositivity rate in men was higher than that in women for all participants and tea pluckers, but the differences were not significant. Critical risk factors for SFTSV infection are increasing age and being a tea plucker. Our findings suggest that health education should be enhanced to increase awareness among residents (especially, the older ones and tea pluckers) to protect them against SFTS.
Here, we report a bacterium—isolated as the sole pathogen from a child with diarrhea—harboring eae and 2 different cytolethal distending toxin genes (cdt) that are homologous to Escherichia colicdt-I and cdt-II. The bacterium was originally identified as atypical E. coli by conventional biochemical testing, but was finally identified as E. albertii by multilocus sequence analysis, which is the only method that can currently differentiate E. albertii from E. coli. The Shiga toxin 2f (stx2f) genes were also detected in the strain. Production of these 3 toxins was confirmed by western blotting and/or a cytotoxicity assay using eukaryotic cell lines. This is the first report showing the biological activity of CDT-I, CDT-II, and Stx2f in E. albertii.
The objective of this study was to examine a novel profile: thiol-disulfide homeostasis in acute brucellosis. The study included 90 patients with acute brucellosis, and 27 healthy controls. Thiol-disulfide profile tests were analyzed by a recently developed method, and ceruloplasmin levels were determined. Native thiol levels were 256.72 ± 48.20 μmol/L in the acute brucellosis group and 461.13 ± 45.37 μmol/L in the healthy group, and total thiol levels were 298.58 ± 51.78 μmol/L in the acute brucellosis group and 504.83 ± 51.05 μmol/L in the healthy group (p < 0.001, for both). The disulfide/native thiol ratios and disulfide/total thiol ratios were significantly higher, and native thiol/total thiol ratios were significantly lower in patients with acute brucellosis than in the healthy controls (p < 0.001, for all ratios). There were either positive or negative relationships between ceruloplasmin levels and thiol-disulfide parameters. The thiol-disulfide homeostasis was impaired in acute brucellosis. The strong associations between thiol-disulfide parameters and a positive acute-phase reactant reflected the disruption of the balance between the antioxidant and oxidant systems. Since thiol groups act as anti-inflammatory mediators, the alteration in the thiol-disulfide homeostasis may be involved in brucellosis.
The population dependency of measles, syphilis, and amebiasis was expressed as P = kNm, where P, N, and m were number of patients, population size, and a constant (～2 for measles, and 1.3～1.4 for syphilis and amebiasis), respectively. The population size dependency emerged only when conditions other than population size, such as infant mortality, hygienic condition, vaccination practices, and others, improved to the same level in all the prefectures in Japan. The formation of prefectures and municipalities was well simulated by the random coin toss assuming that people are attracted to a community with a probability proportional to the number of the residents to the 1.3rd power. When the number of inflow population was plotted against the number of the resident population in a prefecture, or when the number of coins that were added in a round was plotted against the number of coins that were present before the coin toss, the plots fell on a straight line with the slope ～1.3, which was almost the same as the slope obtained when the number of cases of syphilis or amebiasis was plotted against the population size.
This study aimed to compare hospitalization of children for pneumonia between secondary and tertiary medical facilities, which hospitalize many children without and with underlying diseases, respectively, after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Our retrospective study included children admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at Kitakyushu General Hospital, a secondary medical facility, and the Hospital of the University of Occupational and Environment Health, Japan, a tertiary medical facility, from 2009 to 2013 for pneumonia. We compared the change in the rate of hospitalization for pneumonia after the introduction of the 7-valent PCV between the secondary and tertiary medical facilities. Hospitalization of patients with pneumonia declined by 28.8% in our secondary medical facility. In particular, hospitalization for pneumonia other than confirmed mycoplasmal or viral pneumonia was significantly reduced by 49.2%. In contrast, hospitalization of patients with pneumonia did not decline in our tertiary medical facility. After the introduction of PCV, hospitalization of children for pneumonia was not reduced at the tertiary medical facility. Various other pathogens besides pneumococcus may be associated with the development of pneumonia in children with underlying diseases.
A retrospective analysis of the surveillance data on laboratory confirmed cases of influenza in 4 post pandemic seasons in Serbia was performed to evaluate predictors of hospitalization and admission to intensive care units (ICU). The specimens, including nasal and throat swabs were tested for influenza. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Data of a total of 777 confirmed influenza cases were analyzed. Age > 65 years, the presence of any co-morbidity or the presence of ≥ 2 comorbidities, infection with influenza virus subtype A (H1) pdm09, and an interval greater than 3 days between symptom onset and the first physician visit, were independently associated with hospital admission. These variables, as well as infection with non-subtype influenza virus A, were predictors for ICU admission. Obesity and chronic neurological disease were independent predictors for ICU admission but not hospitalization. Overall, 41.7% of patients with influenza had at least one co-morbidity, but only 3% of all patients were vaccinated against influenza. Identification of high risk groups and education of these groups regarding their increased susceptibility to severe forms of influenza, and in particular regarding the importance of influenza vaccination, is essential.
This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)/syphilis co-infection and HSV-2 mono-infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 545 HIV-positive MSM in Shenyang between February 2009 and October 2014. Participants underwent physical examinations and serological tests for HSV-2 and syphilis. A multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with HSV-2/syphilis co-infection and HSV-2 mono-infection. The prevalence of HSV-2 mono-infection, syphilis mono-infection, and HSV-2/syphilis co-infection (95% confidence interval) was 48.6% (44.4–52.8%), 34.3% (30.3–38.3%), and 22.9% (19.4–26.5%), respectively. After controlling within HSV-2/syphilis-seropositive cases, regression analysis revealed that the related factors for HSV-2/syphilis co-infection included age (25–50 vs. ≤ 24 years: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.55; > 50 vs. ≤ 24 years: aOR, 43.02), having regular female sexual partner(s) in the past 6 months (aOR, 0.43), and age at first MSM experience (≤ 18 vs. > 18 years: aOR, 2.59) (all P < 0.05). The high prevalence of HSV-2 mono infection and HSV-2/syphilis co-infection in HIV-positive MSM indicates a high secondary HIV transmission risk. A campaign for detection and treatment of HSV-2 and syphilis is urgently required for HIV-positive MSM in China.
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in Beijing Tongren hospital and to identify a possible relation between colonization and infection. The clinical data on 650 inpatients between March 2012 and July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli among the inpatients was 25.7% (167/650), with the highest level (50.0%) in the rheumatology ward and the lowest (10.0%) in intensive care units. Hospital stay more than 2 years prior to infection, the use of antibiotics within 3 months of infection, and the use of glucocorticoids or immunosuppressive drugs were found to be significantly associated with carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli (P < 0.05). In total, 76 sequence types (STs) were revealed by multilocus sequence typing. ST38 (n = 12, 7.2%) was the most common ST, followed by ST10 (n = 10, 6.0%) and ST131 and ST167 (n = 9 and 5.4% each). Among the fecal carriers, only one patient had an active infection, which was caused by an ST38 strain. In conclusion, in Beijing Tongren hospital, the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli was not high. The risk factors of carriage of ESBL-producing E. coli are hospitalization and use of antibiotics, glucocorticoids, or immunosuppressive drugs. ST38, ST10, ST131, and ST167 are the prominent genotypes, but almost 50.0% of STs were scarcely distributed.
Infective endocarditis is an infection with a high mortality rate. Antimicrobial therapy is important for treatment, but data on antimicrobial susceptibilities are limited. This retrospective study analyzed data on the causative microorganisms and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in patients with infective endocarditis 18 years of age or older who received inpatient care between 2006 and 2015 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. A total of 213 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Streptococcus spp. (54.5%) was the most common organism. Viridans streptococcus (46%) was the leading pathogen, followed by Group B streptococcus (27%). The majority of Streptococcus spp. were susceptible to penicillin (82.7%). Among Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus suis had the highest MIC90 of penicillin and cefotaxime (1.65 and 0.95 μg/ml, respectively). There was a statistically significant increase in the MICs of penicillin and cefotaxime for Streptococcus suis (P = 0.03 and 0.04). Only 45.5% of Streptococcus suis and 77.5% of Viridans streptococcus were susceptible to penicillin. All Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were susceptible to vancomycin. In conclusion, the prevalence of Group B streptococcus isolates increased among patients with infective endocarditis in Thailand. Streptococcus suis had the highest MIC90 and proportion of isolates not susceptible to penicillin. Rigorous restriction of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal feeds should be a primary concern.
β-lactamase genes were detected and characterized from 10 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) clinical isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins collected between 2012 and 2014 in Japan. Five strains showed cefotaxime minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 64 μg/ml and positive clavulanic acid inhibition results. The blaCTX-M-2 was detected in 3 strains (serotypes Stanley and Muenchen), whereas blaTEM-52 (serotype Manhattan) and blaSHV-12 (serotype Infantis) were each found in 1 strain. blaCMY-2 was detected in the remaining 5 strains (serotypes Infantis, Rissen, Newport, and Saintpaul) with cefotaxime MICs of 4–32 μg/ml and positive cloxacillin- and 3-aminophenylboronic acid- based inhibition tests. ISEcp1 was located upstream of the blaCMY-2 in 4 strains and of the blaCTX-M-2 in 1 strain. Incompatibility (Inc)A/C, IncP, and IncI1 plasmids were present in the strains harboring blaCMY-2, which were detected predominantly in this study. Acquisition of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins by invasive NTS may limit therapeutic options for severe systemic infections and causing serious public health problems. Though such resistant clinical isolates are still rare in Salmonella species in Japan, our findings reveal the presence of cephem-resistant NTS in food handlers, thus emphasizing the necessity of more systematic nationwide investigations.
To investigate whether rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) is excreted in the urine of HEV-infected rats, we infected 3 Wistar and 6 nude rats with rat HEV and examined the rat-HEV RNA in serum, fecal, and urine samples. We detected rat-HEV RNA in the serum and fecal samples of all 9 rats but not in any of the urine samples. Our results suggest that in rats, rat HEV is not transmitted via urine.
A 57-year-old man presented with high fever and diarrhea. A blood culture revealed the presence of a Group C nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolate. On Salmonella serotyping, the isolate was identified as Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow. Its sequence type was determined to be ST16 by sequence analysis of 7 different housekeeping genes. The blaCTX-M group 1 and blaTEM genes were amplified using multiplex PCR assay for detecting extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) genes. Sequences of both amplicons were respectively identical to CTX-M-15- and TEM-1-encoding genes. Since NTS is a cause of foodborne illness outbreaks in communities and an important cause of community-acquired bloodstream infection, clinicians should consider ESBL- or AmpC-producing NTS species in the differential diagnosis.
A total of 265 chicken parts were collected from 15 wet markets and 15 supermarkets in Metro Manila, Philippines. Campylobacter spp. was isolated on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar plates and identified through biochemical tests and PCR amplification of genus- and species-specific genes. Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined following the protocols of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Two hundred and seven (78.1%) Campylobacter spp. isolates were obtained. Campylobacterjejuni and Campylobactercoli were detected in 170 (64.2%) and 32 (12.1%) of the samples, respectively. Liver and skin samples showed the greatest levels of contamination. Most of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin (98.6%), erythromycin (98.6%), nalidixic acid (98.1%), tetracycline (94.2%), gentamicin (65.2%), and chloramphenicol (52.7%). The results indicated that poultry meat sold in markets in Metro Manila is contaminated with drug-resistant Campylobacter spp.
Orbital cellulitis along with panophthalmitis is uncommon. The causes are usually trauma-related or endogenous. The prognosis in terms of globe salvage is very poor, with most cases usually requiring enucleation or evisceration of the affected eye. Immunosuppression in some form is usually present, which accounts for the aggressive course of the infection. In this communication, we report on a case in a 25-year-old female, who in the second trimester of pregnancy had developed orbital cellulitis and panophthalmitis caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), with the primary source of infection being cellulitis on her forearm following intravenous therapy for severe anemia. Despite intensive intravenous and topical antibiotics, she required an evisceration of the eye. However, the pregnancy continued uneventfully with the delivery of a full-term, healthy infant. Bacteremia, although rare in pregnancy, can cause endogenous panophthalmitis and orbital cellulitis, especially in a background of immunosuppresssion.
Measles is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by measles virus (MeV). The government of Japan, following the last epidemic in 2007 and 2008, which was caused by genotype D5 strains, introduced a catch-up-vaccination program for teenagers during Japan fiscal years 2008–2012 and a mandatory case-based reporting system for the nationwide elimination. Furthermore, laboratory confirmation of measles cases by genotyping of isolates has been performed to clarify the source of infection and support the interruption of measles cases. Owing to these preventive measures, the number of measles cases has been steadily decreasing after the last epidemic. In March 2015, Japan was internationally verified as having achieved measles elimination by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. The continuous elimination of measles and high levels of vaccination coverage for MeV have been maintained nationally. However, imported or import-associated cases of measles have sporadically occurred during this time. After the last nationwide epidemic, 17 imported or import-associated measles cases (MeV strains identified as genotypes H1, D4, D8, and B3) were reported in Hokkaido, the northern islands of Japan. In this study, we present the occurrence of measles and surveillance activities in Hokkaido during 2006–2015.
We compared 47 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 isolates with 184 EHEC non-O157 isolates from Korean patients with diarrhea. In the O157 group, the strains harboring both Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) were detected with highest frequency, whereas the strains harboring only stx1 gene were most frequently detected in the non-O157 group. Eight virulence genes (eaeA, hlyA, ehx, iha, efa1, tir, toxB, and espA) were found to show a higher frequency of occurrence in the O157 group than in the non-O157 group. In addition, the symptom of bloody diarrhea was exhibited at a higher rate in the O157 group (51.1%) than in the non-O157 group (16.8%). Our findings demonstrate that EHEC O157 strains are more frequently implicated in cases of bloody diarrhea in the Korean population than EHEC non-O157 strains.
We report a case of rat bite fever, diagnosed based on positive cultures of Streptobacillus moniliformis from blood and synovial fluid. The patient was a 45-year-old man who presented with history of a rat bite and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. He had been bitten on his third finger by a rat, which was caught in a mousetrap installed in his house. Over the course of approximately 2 weeks after the bite, the patient developed fever, rash, and arthralgia. The patient was admitted to our hospital and treated with a combination of ampicillin-sulbactam, vancomycin (VAN), and minocycline (MIN) antibiotics. Initial culture findings from the Anaerobic/F resin blood culture were positive for gram-negative bacillus after overnight incubation. Thus, S. moniliformis infection was suspected, and administration of VAN and MIN was ceased. On hospital day 8, the treatment was switched to oral amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and the patient was discharged from the hospital. Subsequently, the pathogen was also detected in synovial fluid and identified as S. moniliformis using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis.
A novel GII.17 norovirus (NoV), Kawasaki 2014, has spread to several regions of the world. Rapid and reliable diagnostic tests are needed for the detection of this new NoV variant. In this study,analytical sensitivity of 7 different immunochromatographic (IC) test kits (6 are on the market in Japan and one in Europe) was evaluated by means of confirmed GII.17 NoV-positive stool samples. The stool samples were also tested by a bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA). Real-time RT-PCR served as a reference (gold standard) method. Among the 7 IC kits, RIDA QUICK was the most sensitive, with the limit of detection of 107 copies/ml, whereas the limits of detection of the other IC kits ranged from 108 to 109 copies/ml. It should be pointed out that the limit of detection of BLEIA was approximately 100- to 1,000-fold better (104–105 copies/ml) than that of RIDA QUICK. Nevertheless, the procedure of BLEIA took more time and required sophisticated equipment.
Although major mumps epidemics occurred every 4–5 years in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan, no laboratory diagnoses were conducted. A mumps epidemic started in Okinawa in October 2014, and we collected clinical samples from 31 patients in 4 areas (Hokubu, Nanbu, Miyako, and Yaeyama) from July to December 2015, for virus isolation and RT-PCR, whose positive ratios were 52% and 87%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all isolates were classified into genotype G, and with one exception, consisted of 2 subgenotypes, Ge (55.6%) and Gw (40.7%), which have been prominent in Japan recently. One isolate was classified in another lineage, which was detected in Japan for the first time, and was similar to a Hong Kong isolate from 2014. Remarkably, the geographic distributions of the 2 major lineages were separated. The Ge viruses were isolated from the main island of Okinawa and the Yaeyama Islands, whereas the Gw isolates were mainly detected from the Miyako Islands. These results suggest that the Ge and Gw mumps viruses mainly caused the mumps epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, and that they spread independently in separate regions. This is the first report describing the molecular epidemiology of mumps epidemics in Okinawa Prefecture.
Seasonal influenza is known to spread within and among educational organizations. Detailed understanding of the pattern of infection requires comprehensive prospective epidemiological studies, involving all schools within a community. This prospective survey evaluated 13,217 schoolchildren attending all of the 29 public elementary schools in Matsumoto City, Japan, in 2014/2015. Questionnaires were distributed to school nurses to obtain information about onset date and suspected route of transmission of influenza for all schoolchildren diagnosed with influenza virus at medical institutions. Responses were obtained for 2,548 infected schoolchildren, representing 96% of reported cases. Epidemic curves were plotted for each school by calculating the numbers of incident cases. Distance between schools was not associated with influenza spread over time. However, modeling showed that the occurrence of initial infection at each school and its spread over time could be fitted with a logistic curve. The transmission route for most children initially infected at each school was through a household member, whereas for most remaining schoolchildren it was through the school. These findings indicated that seasonal influenza was initially transmitted to schoolchildren by household members and then spread throughout the schools, with the initially infected child at each school fitting logistic curves over time.
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with lifetime testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in non-injection drug users (NIDU). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 323 individuals in clinics for chemical dependency in the state of Goiás in the Central-West region of Brazil. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with lifetime HIV testing. Testing for HIV was associated with age, female gender, crack use, history of sexually transmitted infections, acquaintance with people living with HIV/AIDS and/or who had died from AIDS, and history of having received some instruction on HIV/AIDS prevention methods. It was found that only 26.6% reported having access to the HIV rapid test. We concluded determinants for HIV testing must be taken into account when planning prevention and programming strategies. These include the widening of testing coverage among NIDU, educational health actions, establishment of links between sexually transmitted infection prevention services and addiction treatment services, and the use of rapid tests to help people who are in contact with the virus learn about their HIV status, enter treatment, and improve their quality of life.
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