Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a life-threatening viral infection. The pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the change in irisin concentrations in patients with CCHF. The study included a total of 30 patients with CCHF and 30 control participants. Irisin concentrations were determined using a commercial ELISA kit. Median irisin concentrations were 9.03 (5.81–12.22) μg/mL and 4.2 (3.39–7.62) μg/mL, respectively, in each group. There was no correlation between irisin and disease severity. Any correlations between irisin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), international normalization ratio (INR), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), platelets, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimer and hemoglobin, were also investigated. There were statistically significant positive correlations between the values of irisin, and platelet (p = 0.005, r: 0.369), ALT (p = 0.049, r: 0.261), INR (p = 0.006, r: 0.359) and aPTT values (p = 0.002, r: 0.405). A negative correlation was also found between the values of irisin and LDH (p = 0.008, r: －0.348). No correlations were determined between the values of irisin, and AST, hemoglobin and D-dimer. These results suggest that irisin may have a role in CCHF.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are responsible for high rates of mortality and thus pose a substantial burden to public health worldwide. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characteristics of MRSA isolated from child patients at Shenzhen Children’s Hospital. We characterized 140 MRSA strains through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We further performed spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) analysis, pvl gene analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The analyzed MRSA strains were found to be sensitive to most non-β-lactam antimicrobial agents. Sequence type (ST) 59 was found to be the most common MLST lineage (54.3%). Most MRSA isolates belonged to the SCCmec IV (64.3%) and V (22.8%) types. The MRSA-ST59-SCCmec IV-t437 clone was the most predominant strain that infected 28.6% of all patients studied. Moreover, 50.7% of MRSA isolates were found to be pvl-positive. We report preliminary data on the prevalence and distribution of MRSA genotypes in Shenzhen Children’s Hospital. We characterized MRSA colonization dynamics in child patients in China, and our findings can serve as the basis for the development of strategies to prevent MRSA infection and transmission.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predation efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensive drug resistant (XDR) gram-negative pathogens and their corresponding biofilms. In this study, we examined the ability of B. bacteriovorus to prey on MDR and XDR gram-negative clinical bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. Results showed that B. bacteriovorus was able to prey on all planktonic cultures, among which the most efficient predation was observed for drug-resistant E. coli, with a 3.11 log10 reduction in viability. Furthermore, B. bacteriovorus demonstrated promising efficacy in preventing biofilm formation and dispersing the established biofilm. Reductions in biofilm formation of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii co-cultured with B. bacteriovorus were 65.2%, 37.1%, 44.7%, and 36.8%, respectively. Meanwhile, the established biofilms of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii were significantly reduced by 83.4%, 81.8%, 83.1%, and 79.9%, respectively. A visual analysis supported by scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the role of B. bacteriovorus in removing the established biofilms. This study highlights the potential use of B. bacteriovorus as a biological control agent with the capability to prey on MDR/XDR gram-negative pathogens and eradicate biofilms.
Candida albicans frequently causes bloodstream infections; its budded-to-hyphalform transition (BHT) and biofilm formation are major contributors to virulence. During an analysis of antibacterial compounds that inhibit C. albicans BHT, we found that the tetracycline derivative minocycline inhibited BHT and subsequent biofilm formation. Minocycline decreased expression of hypha-specific genes HWP1 and ECE1, and adhesion factor gene ALS3 of C. albicans. In addition, minocycline decreased cell surface hydrophobicity and the extracellular β-glucan level in biofilms. Minocycline has been widely used for catheter antibiotic lock therapy to prevent bacterial infection; this compound may also be prophylactically effective against Candida infection.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major causative agent for adult pneumonia. Following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) for children, serotype replacement has been reported in adult invasive pneumococcal diseases but has not been well studied for cases of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults in Asia. To investigate serotype replacement in adult pneumococcal pneumonia in Japan, we conducted a systematic review of the literature across 5 databases using terms, including pneumococcus, serotype, their synonyms, and derivatives. After the assessment of the identified articles, data on the pneumococcal serotype distribution among adult pneumonia cases were extracted from relevant studies. Twenty-two studies were reviewed, and 4 relevant articles were included in the pooled data analysis. The proportion of the 7-valent PCV (PCV7)-covered serotypes from before and after the introduction of PCV7 for children (－18.1%, p ＜ 0.001) significantly decreased; moreover, the proportions of serotypes covered by PCV13 but not PCV7 (＋9.9%, p = 0.003) and those covered by the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine but not PCV7 (＋9.4%, p = 0.007) significantly increased. Serotype replacement occurred in adult cases of pneumococcal pneumonia following vaccination of children with PCV7 in Japan. Further nationwide surveillance is warranted to investigate serotype replacement in the post-PCV13 phase.
Optimal testing strategies for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection and the administration of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) remain uncertain among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A 4-year prospective study was conducted among Thai HIV-infected patients who underwent simultaneous tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT-IT) at care entry. Based on baseline test results, patients were categorized into the following 4 groups: i) QFT-IT-positive, TST-reactive; ii) QFT-IT-positive, TST-non-reactive; iii) QFT-IT-negative, TST-reactive; and iv) QFT-IT-negative, TST-non-reactive. The QFT-IT-positive patients were offered 9-month IPT and were QFT-IT tested annually. Of the 150 enrolled patients, 8, 12, 16, and 114 patients were assigned to groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Sixteen of 19 QFT-IT-positive patients (84%) completed IPT. The incidence of tuberculosis was significantly higher in patients who declined IPT than in those underwent treatment (11.11 vs. 0 case/100 patient-year; P ＜ 0.001). Among the 16 patients completing IPT, 11 (69%) and 2 (12%) had QFT-IT reversion at 1 and 2 years after IPT, respectively. The remaining 3 (19%) did not demonstrate any reversion, and their baseline interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels were above 1.2 IU/mL. Initial QFT-IT-guided IPT was effective in preventing tuberculosis. Serial QFT-IT for evaluating IPT effectiveness had limitations because of delayed or lack of reversion, especially for patients with high baseline IFN-γ levels.
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), an enteric pathogen, causes persistent diarrhea in children, HIV-infected individuals, and travelers in economically developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of EAEC infection is not well understood. This study aimed to characterize EAEC in Japan. Between 2012 and 2014, we identified 40 EAEC strains carrying the aggR gene at the Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, Japan. We characterized these strains using O:H-antigen typing, polymerase chain reaction (for pCVD432, astA, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and 4 aggregative adherence fimbriae genes), HEp-2 cell adherence, clump formation, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We were able to classify the 40 EAEC strains into 20 O:H types. Although specific O:H types were not correlated with HEp-2 cell aggregative adherence, all the O99:H10, O131:H27, and O176:H34 EAEC strains that were the most frequent O:H types detected in this study showed co-resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and tetracycline. Based on results of the adhesion assay and detection of virulence-related genes, no significant difference was found between asymptomatic and symptomatic cases. Irrespective of the origin, their potential for virulence was retained. Further characterization is vital to determine whether EAEC is virulent in Japan.
We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiological characteristics and clinical treatment outcome of typhoid fever in Ningbo, China during 2005–2014. Eighty-eight Salmonella Typhi isolates were obtained from 307 hospitalized patients. Three prevalent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of 54 isolates from 3 outbreaks were identified. Overall, there were 64 (72.7%) isolates from clustered cases and 24 (27.3%) isolates from sporadic cases. Resistance to nalidixic acid (NAL) (n = 47; 53.4%) and ampicillin (AMP) (n = 40; 45.4%) and rare resistance to tetracycline (TET) (n = 2; 2.3%) and gentamicin (GEN) (n = 2; 2.3%) were observed. No isolates resistant to cefotaxime (CTX), chloramphenicol (CL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) were found. The occurrence of reduced sensitivity to CIP was 52.3% (n = 46). The medians of fever clearance time in cases with and without complications were 7 (interquartile range (IQR): 4–10) and 5 (IQR: 3–7) days (P = 0.001), respectively, when patients were treated with CIP or levofloxacin (LEV) and/or third-generation cephalosporins (CEP). Rates of serious complications were at low levels: peritonitis (2.3%), intestinal hemorrhage (6.8%), and intestinal perforation (1.1%). The present study revealed a long-term clustering trend with respect to PFGE patterns, occasional outbreaks, and the rapid spread of AMP resistance and decreased CIP susceptibility among S. Typhi isolates in recent years.
A total of 1,294 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained in Changsha, China from 2003 to 2015 were examined for their susceptibility to penicillin (PEN), ciprofloxacin (CIP), spectinomycin (SPT), and ceftriaxone (CRO) using the disc diffusion method. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CRO for 460 isolates collected during 2008–2015 was determined by agar dilution method. Isolates with intermediate CRO susceptibility were additionally tested for azithromycin susceptibility. Results demonstrated that the rate of resistance to PEN and CIP were 77.5 % and 94.2 %, respectively. Only 4 SPT-resistant and 2 SPT-intermediate isolates were identified. No CRO-resistant isolates were identified, although the percentage with intermediate susceptibility increased from 1.8% in 2012 to 11.9% in 2015. Among these, 3 isolates showed no susceptibility to azithromycin with 2 isolates showing an MIC of 0.5 μg/mL and 1 isolate showing an MIC of 1.0 μg/mL. We recommend azithromycin for treating strains that demonstrate intermediate susceptible to CRO and azithromycin-susceptible N. gonorrhoeae isolates occurring in Changsha.
Severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) are leading causes of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality in children worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify viral pathogens responsible for SARI in northern Vietnam in the period from 2011 to 2014. Throat swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from SARI patients according to WHO guidelines. The presence of 13 different viral pathogens (influenza A[H1N1]pdm09; A/H3N2; A/H5; A/H7 and B; para influenza 1,2,3; RSV; HMPV; adeno; severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV and rhino) was tested by conventional/real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During the study period, 975 samples were collected and tested. More than 30% (32.1%, 313 samples) of the samples showed evidence of infection with influenza viruses, including A/H3N2 (48 samples), A (H1N1) pdm09 (221 samples), influenza B (42 samples), and co-infection of A (H1N1) pdm09 or A/H3N2 and influenza B (2 samples). Other respiratory pathogens were detected in 101 samples, including rhinovirus (73 samples), adenovirus (10 samples), hMPV (9 samples), parainfluenza 3 (5 samples), parainfluenza 2 (3 samples), and RSV (1 sample). Influenza A/H5, A/H7, or SARS-CoV were not detected. Respiratory viral infection, particularly infection of influenza and rhinoviruses, were associated with high rates of SARI hospitalization, and future studies correlating the clinical aspects are needed to design interventions, including targeted vaccination.
Non-specific symptoms and low viremia levels make early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infection challenging. This study aimed to i) identify laboratory markers that can be used to predict a DENV-positive diagnosis and ii) perform a molecular characterization of DENVs from the 2014 Guangdong epidemic. This retrospective study analyzed 1,044 patients from the Guangdong epidemic who were clinically suspected cases of dengue. Viral RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR, and viral-specific NS1 antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed for the with the DENV C-prM gene junction. Patients with dengue infection had leukopenia (2.8 × 109/L), thrombocytopenia (109.0 × 109/L), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (56.0 IU/L) and alanine aminotransferase (43.5 IU/L), and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, 33.5 s) (all P ＜ 0.001) compared to patients without dengue. The positive predictive value of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia for DENV infection were 96.9% and 93.0%, respectively. Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated aminotransferases, and prolonged APTT were useful predictive markers for an early diagnosis of DENV infection. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the DENVs from the 2014 epidemic were closely related to a 2010 New Delhi strain and a 2013 Guangzhou strain. The 2014 epidemic consisted of co-circulating DENV-1 genotypes I and V from multiple origins. Efficient dengue surveillance can facilitate rapid response to future outbreaks.
Molecular subtyping and DNA sequencing-based methods, which are commonly used for discriminating Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, lead to improved molecular epidemiological investigations for prevention and control of typhoid fever. We obtained S. Typhi blood isolates (n = 66) from India during 2007–14 for molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) in association with antibiotic resistance profiles. Genotypic diversity was observed more by MLVA (Simpson’s index of diversity, D value = 0.997) than PFGE (D value = 0.864). Two prevalent pulsotypes containing nalidixic acid-resistant (NALR) and NALR-ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIPR) S. Typhi isolates circulated in India. Multidrug-resistant (MDR), NALR-CIPR, and most NALR isolates were found to be clonal by PFGE. MLVA could differentiate the clonal isolates. Most of the MDR and NALR-CIPR isolates showed variation in single or double VNTR loci, whereas NALR isolates varied in more than 2 loci, reflecting higher genetic diversity among the NALR isolates. Of the 6 VNTR loci, TR4,699 (D value = 0.838) and Sal02 (D value = 0.890) loci played important roles as MLVA cluster-supporting alleles. The rapid turnaround time and high-level discriminatory power of MLVA may be useful for tracking and controlling the transmission of S. Typhi isolates during epidemiological investigations.
Intraspecies polymorphisms of Microsporum canis strains isolated from human lesions and domesticated cats in Japan were examined by multilocus microsatellite (MS) analysis. Using 9 MS markers, 70 strains were classified into 20 genotypes (genotypes A to T). Of the 9 MS markers used, 5 were considered useful for genotyping, whereas the other 4 were not. The combination of MS2, MS4, and MS7 had the highest resolution power for inter-strain differentiation. Genotype A, present in 15 strains (21.4%), was the most frequent, followed by genotypes H (10 strains, 14.3%), P (8 strains, 11.4%), I (6 strains, 8.6%), and S (6 strains, 8.6%). Eight individual genotypes were present in one strain each. Five episodes of infection of humans and cats living in the same household were analyzed, with strains in all 5 respective households showing the same genotypes. Analysis of geographical distribution established that both genotypes A and H were isolated from 6 prefectures of Honshu and Kyushu islands. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing intraspecies polymorphisms of M. canis isolated in Japan using molecular methods.
The large outbreak of cholera reported during July to September 2014 in the Narla block of Kalahandi district, India, was investigated to determine the causative organism. Rectal swabs collected from patients with diarrhea and environmental water samples were cultured following standard techniques. The causative organism was identified as Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor, and analysis by double mismatch mutation assay PCR confirmed that all strains were the ctxB7 variant of Haitian V. cholerae O1. The environmental water samples were negative for V. cholerae. The V. cholerae O1 strains were sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, doxycycline, and azithromycin, but were resistant to erythromycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, furazolidone, neomycin, cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, and ampicillin. In the 2014 cholera outbreak, the early reporting of the pathogen enabled the government authorities to implement adequate control measures in time to curtail the spread of the disease. That was the second large cholera outbreak due to Haitian variants of V. cholerae O1 after the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak reported from Odisha, India, and other locations globally. Active surveillance is required to track the spread of this strain in the Odisha region.
Over the past decade, indigenous dengue outbreaks have occurred occasionally in Fujian province in southeastern China because of sporadic imported dengue viruses (DENV). In this study, 3 DENV-2 and 2 DENV-4 strains were isolated from suspected febrile travelers at 2 ports of entry in Fujian between 2013–2015. Complete viral genome sequences of these new isolates were obtained with Sanger chemistry. Genomic sequence analyses revealed that these strains belonged to genotypes of 2-Cosmopolitan and 4-II. Consistent with the patients’ travel information, phylogenetic analyses of the complete coding regions also indicated that most of the new isolates were genetically similar to the circulating strains in Southeast Asia rather than previous Chinese strains that were available. Therefore, phylogenetic analyses of the imported DENV demonstrated that multiple introductions of DENV emerged continuously in Fujian, and highlighted the importance of dengue surveillance at entry-exit ports in the subtropical regions of southern China.
Candida species bloodstream infection, or candidemia, remains an important health issue with high morbidity and mortality. Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are often associated with the ability of Candida to form biofilms on medical devices, such as central venous catheters. Non-albicans Candida species have been increasing gradually in clinical settings. Another Candida species, C. tropicalis, has a propensity to form biofilms and is also an independent risk factor for high morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. This study was conducted to investigate the process of biofilm formation by C. tropicalis and the antifungal activity of liposomal amphotericin B (LAB) against both forming biofilms and developed biofilms using time-lapse imaging. We found that C. tropicalis has a high capacity for hyphal growth and gas generation due to its high metabolic activity. Thus, we visually observed the formation of aggressive C. tropicalis biofilms, which are fast-growing biofilms. We found that LAB acts immediately and completely inhibits forming biofilms. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LAB was effective against developed C. tropicalis biofilms by reducing the growth of hyphae and morphological changes. These results suggest that LAB may be effective for the treatment of infections caused by catheter-related C. tropicalis biofilms.
Many countries have already established their own vaccine lot release system that is designed for each country’s situation: while the World Health Organization promotes for the convergence of these regulatory systems so that vaccines of assured quality are provided globally. We conducted a questionnaire-based investigation of the lot release systems for vaccines in 7 countries and 2 regions. We found that a review of the summary protocol by the National Regulatory Authorities was commonly applied for the independent lot release of vaccines, however, we also noted some diversity between countries, especially in regard to the testing policy. Some countries and regions, including Japan, regularly tested every lot of vaccines, whereas the frequency of these tests was reduced in other countries and regions as determined based on the risk assessment of these products. Test items selected for the lot release varied among the countries or regions investigated, although there was a tendency to prioritize the potency tests. An understanding of the lot release policy may contribute to improving and harmonizing the lot release system globally in the future.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults. Although MP pneumonia is usually benign and self-limited, in some cases it can develop into life-threating refractory MP pneumonia (RMPP). However, the pathogenesis of RMPP is poorly understood. The identification and characterization of proteins related to RMPP could provide a proof of principle to facilitate appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for treating paients with MP. In this study, we used a quantitative proteomic technique (iTRAQ) to analyze MP-related proteins in serum samples from 5 patients with RMPP, 5 patients with non-refractory MP pneumonia (NRMPP), and 5 healthy children. Functional classification, sub-cellular localization, and protein interaction network analysis were carried out based on protein annotation through evolutionary relationship (PANTHER) and Cytoscape analysis. A total of 260 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the RMPP and NRMPP groups. Compared to the control group, the NRMPP and RMPP groups showed 134 (70 up-regulated and 64 down-regulated) and 126 (63 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated) differentially expressed proteins, respectively. The complex functional classification and protein interaction network of the identified proteins reflected the complex pathogenesis of RMPP. Our study provides the first comprehensive proteome map of RMPP-related proteins from MP pneumonia. These profiles may be useful as part of a diagnostic panel, and the identified proteins provide new insights into the pathological mechanisms underlying RMPP.
Dengue is the most important arboviral disease worldwide. We previously reported that most inhabitants of dengue-endemic countries who are naturally immune to the disease have infection-enhancing antibodies whose in vitro activity does not decrease in the presence of complement (complement-independent enhancing antibodies, or CiEAb). Here, we compared levels of CiEAb and complement-dependent neutralizing antibodies (CdNAb) in dengue-immune humans. A typical antibody dose-response pattern obtained in our assay system to measure the balance between neutralizing and enhancing antibodies showed both neutralizing and enhancing activities depending on serum dilution factor. The addition of complement to the assay system increased the activity of neutralizing antibodies at lower dilutions, indicating the presence of CdNAb. In contrast, similar dose-response curves were obtained with and without complement at higher dilutions, indicating higher levels of CiEAb than CdNAb. For experimental support for the higher CiEAb levels, a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies against dengue virus type 1 was prepared. The antibody dose-response curves obtained in this assay, with or without complement, were similar to those obtained with human serum samples when a high proportion of D1-V-3H12 (an antibody exhibiting only enhancing activity and thus a model for CiEAb) was used in the cocktail. This study revealed higher-level induction of CiEAb than CdNAb in humans naturally infected with dengue viruses.
We evaluated serial changes in the levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody to the glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core antigen during antibiotic treatment in 57 patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T6) of treatment. The median patient age was 59 years, and 37 (65%) patients were women. The etiologic organisms included M. avium in 32 (56%) patients and M. intracellulare in 25 (44%) patients. Seven (12%) patients had the fibrocavitary form of the disease on computed tomography. After 12 months of treatment, 42 (74%) patients had a favorable response to treatment, whereas 15 (26%) patients had an unfavorable response to treatment defined as the absence of sputum culture conversion within 12 months of treatment. The initial median serum anti-GPL IgA levels in the 57 patients was 3.50 U/mL, and the antibody levels at T0 (median 3.50 U/mL), T3 (median 2.71 U/mL), and T6 (median 2.61 U/mL) were significantly decreased following treatment (P ＜ 0.001). The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that an initially elevated anti-GPL IgA level (＞ 3.50 U/mL) was associated with an unfavorable response (P = 0.049). Our data suggest that elevated anti-GPL IgA levels may reflect disease activity and may help predict treatment response in patients with MAC lung disease.
Outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in tropical and subtropical regions are a cause of worldwide concern and represent a public health emergency. ZIKV was isolated from a 17-year-old patient with fever and maculopapular rash. The patient returned to Japan from the Republic of Fiji in late April 2016. The complete genome sequence of the ZIKV isolate (ZIKV/Hu/S36/Chiba/2016), which might be the first strain to be isolated in Japan, was identified and reported.
Global spread of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 poses a challenge to public health because colistin is the last-line-of-defense against severe infections of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In Japan, a few studies have reported the prevalence of mcr-1 among food animal-derived Escherichia coli isolates, but the prevalence of mcr-1 in retail meats is not well known. We report here the first detection of mcr-1 in retail chicken meat. A total of 70 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates, recovered from retail chicken meats between August 2015 and June 2016, were screened for mcr-1. We found 1 CTX-M-1 beta-lactamase-producing E. coli isolate belonging to ST1684, phylogroup A. The mcr-1 gene was not located on an IncI1 plasmid encoding the blaCTX-M-1 gene. However, whole plasmid sequencing revealed that mcr-1 was located on an IncI2 plasmid. The sequences of the nikB-mcr-1-pap2-ydfA-topB region of the IncI2 plasmid in this study was almost identical to that of the previously described IncI2 plasmid, pECJS-61–63 present in E. coli isolated from pig feces in China, except for containing a synonymous mutation in the mcr-1 gene. Plasmid carrying the mcr-1 gene have not yet been identified in human isolates in Japan. Thus, strict monitoring or surveillance of colistin resistance among Gram-negative bacteria recovered from retail meat of food animals under colistin pressure, and humans, is crucial.
This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of rotavirus genotypes in Nara Prefecture, Japan before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccination in 2011. Since the 2011/2012 season, DS-1-like G1P strains have been detected in Nara Prefecture, accounting for about half of all strains in the 2014/2015 season. During the 2015/2016 season, no DS-1-like G1P strains were detected; G2P was the predominant genotype.
Edited and published by : National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases Editorial Committee Produced and listed by : Kobunsha Co., Ltd. (Vol. 70 No. 3 – ) Komiyama Printing Co., Ltd. (Vol. 65 No. 3 –Vol. 70 No. 2)