Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Online ISSN : 1884-2836
Print ISSN : 1344-6304
ISSN-L : 1344-6304
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-22 of 22 articles from this issue
  • Takeshi Arashiro, Yuzo Arima, Takuri Takahashi, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Hiro ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.368
    Published: March 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In Japan, based on the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID) Program, influenza cases from ~5,000 sentinel sites are monitored weekly as part of influenza surveillance (as number of influenza cases/sentinel site). One limitation is that the number of influenza tests conducted is not reported. Separately, the National Hospital Organization (NHO), with ~140 hospitals, routinely publishes three indicators: number of influenza tests, influenza-positive case counts, and test positivity. We used NESID and NHO data from April 2011 to June 2022 to assess the usefulness of multiple indicators to monitor influenza activity. Temporal trends of the NHO and NESID indicators were similar, and NHO indicator levels well-correlated with those of the NESID indicator. Influenza positivity in the NHO data, however, showed an earlier rise and peak time compared to the NESID indicator. Importantly, through the non-epidemic summer periods and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, a sizable number of influenza tests continued to be done at NHO hospitals, with results showing considerably low case counts and test positivity. These data show that a relatively small number of sentinel sites is sufficient to monitor influenza activity nationally, and, that utilizing multiple indicators can increase our confidence in situational awareness and data interpretations.

    Download PDF (982K)
  • Ichiro Tatsuno, Masanori Isaka, Tadao Hasegawa
    Article ID: JJID.2023.451
    Published: March 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The administration of high-dose clindamycin (CLI) along with penicillin is recommended for the treatment of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). However, CLI-resistant strains have been identified worldwide. Firstly, in this study, some CLI-resistant strains showed increased extracellular activities of the NAD- glycohydrolase (NADase) exotoxin after CLI treatment. This result supported our previous conclusion that not only CLI-susceptible but also CLI-resistant S. pyogenes strains show the CLI-dependent NADase induction. Secondary, using the 13 types of two- component-sensor knockout strains derived from a CLI-susceptible strain 1529 that has the CLI-dependent NADase induction phenotype, we investigated the mechanism of action. Among the knockout strains, only 1529ΔcovS lost the phenotype. In addition, 1529ΔspeB, 1529Δmga, and 1529Δrgg retained the CLI-dependent NADase induction phenotype. These results suggest that CovS is related to the phenotype in SpeB independent manner.

    Download PDF (1479K)
  • Mariko Ohtani, Sadako Yoshizawa, Taito Miyazaki, Eri Kumade, Shinobu H ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.483
    Published: March 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 29, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The Japanese guidelines for the management of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) recommend metronidazole (MNZ) for non-severe cases and vancomycin (VCM) for severe cases. Here, we investigated the use of CDI antimicrobials and evaluated their clinical efficacy in four severity classifications and the validity of these classifications. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 137 inpatients with an initial positive C. difficile toxin test and initiation of CDI antimicrobials between April 2015 and March 2019. For the clinical efficacy analysis of the CDI antimicrobials and validation of the severity classifications, patients treated with VCM or oral MNZ were included. The endpoints were CDI recurrence rate, 30-day mortality rate, and diarrhea cure rate. No significant differences were found between the VCM and oral MNZ groups regarding the CDI recurrence rate (10.4% vs. 12.7%, p = 0.707), 30-day mortality rate (12.5% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.162), and diarrhea cure rate (61.9% vs. 72.7%, p = 0.238), regardless of the severity. Treatment with oral MNZ for non-severe cases was promising, confirming the usefulness of treatment according to Japanese guidelines. Further investigation of the clinical efficacy of oral MNZ in patients with first-episode CDI and evaluation of the preferable severity classification are warranted.

    Download PDF (1149K)
  • Subhabrata Sarkar, Mannat Kang, Suresh Kumar Angurana, Shankar Prasad, ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.251
    Published: February 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 29, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Respiratory samples from 139 hospitalized children were screened for the Human Bocavirus (HBoV) genome. Positive samples were sequenced for partial VP1/VP2 gene followed by molecular and phylogenetic analyses. HBoV positivity was noted in 7.2% (10/139) patients. All HBoV positive children presented with fever followed by cough and respiratory distress (90%; 9/10). Three children developed multisystemic viral illness with one fatality. Eight children required intensive care management and mechanical ventilation required for 5 children. Nucleotide percent identity of partial VP1/VP2 gene of HBoV study strains were ranging from 97.52% to 99.67%. Non-synonymous amino acid mutations in VP1 protein revealed T591S (n=8) and Y517S (n=1) mutations in comparison to HBoVSt1 strain where N475S (n=8) and S591T (n=2) mutations in comparison to HBoVSt2 strain. One study strain showed A556P, H556P, I561S and M562R non-synonymous mutations. All the study strains belong to HBoV1 type. Seven HBoV strains belong to same lineage and three belong to another lineage. For evolutionary dynamics, GTR+I substitution model with uncorrelated relaxed lognormal clock and Bayesian Skyline tree prior showed 9.0 x 10-4 [95% HPD interval: 3.1 x10-6, 2.1 x 10-3] nucleotide substitutions/site/year. The clinical suspicion and virological screening is necessary for identification HBoV in children.

    Download PDF (1714K)
  • Jie Zheng, Qiu-jin Yang, Fei Qi, Han-zhang Shen, Le Zhang, Jia-wei Xia
    Article ID: JJID.2023.280
    Published: February 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 29, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is susceptible to numerous complications such as sepsis and acute kidney injury (AKI), leading to adverse outcomes. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is becoming increasingly popular in the treatment of sepsis and AKI. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of CRRT in the treatment of AIDS with sepsis and AKI, to provide new directions for the treatment of severe AIDS. Data of 74 people with AIDS, sepsis and AKI were collected. They were divided into CRRT and non-CRRT groups. There was no difference in indicators between the two groups at admission. Vital signs, PH, serum potassium, renal function, blood lactate, APACHE II score, and SOFA score in CRRT group demonstrated significant improvements over those in the non-CRRT group both 24 and 72 hours after admission (P<0.05). Level of Interleukin 6 and procalcitonin declined more significantly in CRRT group 72 hours after admission (P<0.05). CRRT group had a higher 28-day survival rate (P<0.05). CRRT improves the clinical indicators and increases the short-term survival rate of people with AIDS, sepsis and AKI.

    Download PDF (982K)
  • Kaoru Ogawa, Jiro Kamiyama, Tadayoshi Ikebe, Shigemasa Taguchi, Kazuya ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.332
    Published: February 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 29, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The patient was a 22-year-old woman with no comorbidities who was transferred to our hospital due to cardiac arrest. Treatment enabled return to spontaneous circulation in the patient before arriving at the hospital. At the hospital, the patient’s vital signs were unstable. Vasopressors and hyperhydration therapy were administered. Computed Tomography (CT) showed no remarkable change that caused the cardiac arrest. Antibiotics were prescribed after a blood culture exam. The patient was admitted to the ICU. In the ICU, the high-capacity vasopressors, hyperhydration therapy and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were continued. Two hours after examining the blood culture, the results remained positive. Gram staining revealed Streptococcus, and the antibiotics were switched to penicillin G potassium, clindamycin and immunoglobulin was added. Hyperhydration therapy caused respiratory failure. Ten hours after admission to the ICU, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was introduced, but the patient’s general status did not improve. The patient died at 40 hours after admission. Blood culture results proved Streptococcus pyogenes; T and M serotypes were unclassifiable. The emm genotype was emm22. Regarding fever toxin genes, speA and speB were positive, and speC was negative. Among CsrS, CsrR and Rgg amino acid sequences, mutations in CsrS were detected.

    Download PDF (1625K)
  • Ayumi Niwa, Masahiro Hayashi, Jun Yonetamari, Motohiro Nakamura, Yuta ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.370
    Published: February 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 29, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We herein report the first case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Pigmentibacter ruber. The isolated strain could not be identified by biochemical characterization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The isolated strain was identified as P. ruber by 16S ribosomal RNA and whole genome sequencing. Although much remains unknown about the pathogenicity of this bacterial specie in humans, it has been revealed to cause life-threatening infections, such as septicemia and necrotizing fasciitis. Since the isolate was highly resistant to beta-lactams, it could be difficult to treat with antimicrobial therapy. Thus further documentation of cases and analyses are needed.

    Download PDF (1144K)
  • Chanihcha Anudit, Pornthip Saraisuwan, Chantana Kimterng, Chanakan Pua ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.376
    Published: February 29, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 29, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative bacterium that prominently causes a variety of clinical infections in humans, such as diarrhea, sepsis, and urinary tract infection. This bacterium is a common multidrug-resistant threat in community and hospital settings worldwide. This study examined the antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationship based on Clermont phylotyping and ERIC-PCR of 84 E. coli urinary isolates from provincial and community hospitals in Thailand. All the isolates were completely susceptible to nitrofurantoin, whereas almost all isolates were susceptible to carbapenem, fosfomycin, and amikacin. A high resistance rate was found to fluoroquinolone, ampicillin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Clermont phylogroup B2 was predominant (n=58). Subtyping of the B2 phylogroup revealed diverse subgroups, of which subgroup V (n=11) was predominant, followed by VII (n=9), III (n=6), and II (n=6). ERIC-PCR showed the strain of the B2 subgroups III and V were spread between provincial and community hospitals and between hospital wards. This evidence suggested the need for comprehensive infection control monitoring, with strong active surveillance at all hospital levels.

    Download PDF (1184K)
  • Shintaro Hayashi, Tomohito Moriyama, Yuichiro Ito, Yuta Harada, Hiroki ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.253
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The association between proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use and systemic infections caused by bacterial translocation is unclear. This study aims to investigate whether patients receiving PPI therapy have a higher risk for bloodstream infections (BSI) without an identifiable source of infection, as an alternative indicator of BSI secondary to bacterial translocation. We conducted a hospital-based case–control study which enrolled all patients aged 20 years and older who developed BSI confirmed by two sets of positive blood culture and had inpatient care in Ichinomiya-Nishi Hospital in 2019. Patients’ data were collected from medical records, and bacterial translocation type (BT-type) BSI group were defined as those who had BSI without an identifiable source of infection, whereas the others were classified control group based on the diagnostic criteria for each infectious disease. We analyzed data from 309 patients, including 66 cases and 243 controls. PPI users had a 2.4-fold higher risk of developing BT-type BSI compared to non-PPI-users after controlling for potential confounders (OR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.29–4.51, p=0.006). In conclusion, PPI use is associated with higher risk of BSI without an identifiable source and therefore, PPI use may increase the risk of septic morbidity secondary to bacterial translocation.

    Download PDF (1413K)
  • Hoang Huy Le, An Van Nguyen, Luong Huy Vu, Vinh Thi Ha Nguyen, Hoa Quy ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.260
    Published: January 31, 2023
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This cross-sectional study investigated the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of Gram-negative pathogens isolated from 4,789 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Of the collected specimens, 1,325 (27.7%) specimens tested positive for Gram-negative bacteria. The most prevalent isolates were Acinetobacter baumannii (38.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.7%), Escherichia coli (5.6%), and Klebsiella aerogenes (3.5%). Antimicrobial resistance analysis revealed high resistance rates among A. baumannii isolates, showing resistance (79.9%-100%) to multiple classes of antibiotics, except amikacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and colistin. P. aeruginosa displayed lower resistance to colistin (<10%), but resistance to other antibiotics was high. K. pneumoniae displayed elevated resistance rates against most penicillins, ranging from 90.0% to 100.0%. In contrast, the resistance rates were notably lower for colistin (7.1%) and amikacin (16.7%). K. aerogenes showed high resistance to various antibiotics, while sensitivity was observed for amikacin (95.1%), ampicillin (100.0%), and colistin (100.0%). E. coli exhibited resistance to ampicillin (96.9%) but showed maximum sensitivity to several antibiotics. The study identified significant antimicrobial resistance trends and highlighted the prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains (93.6% for K. aerogenes and 69.1%-92.4% for other isolates). These findings emphasize the urgent need for appropriate antibiotic stewardship practices to combat antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative pathogens associated with LRTIs.

    Download PDF (1917K)
  • Hirokazu Adachi, Hiroko Minagawa, Emi Hirose, Noriko Nakamura, Hitomi ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.265
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3, Human respirovirus 3) is the second most frequently detected virus after human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in lower respiratory tract infections in children. HPIV-3, like its close relative respiratory viruses, HRSV and influenza virus, may cause encephalopathy, but the relevance of HPIV-3 as a pathogenic factor in encephalopathy is unknown. We attempted to detect HPIV-1 through 4, HRSV, and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in 136 patients with encephalitis/encephalopathy, or suspected encephalitis/encephalopathy during a 6-year period from 2014 to 2019. As a result, HPIV-3 was detected most frequently in 6 patients, followed by HRSV in 3. The HPIV-3 strains detected were closely related to those detected in a patient with respiratory disease at the same period. Although HPIV-3 is less recognized than HRSV as a triggering virus of encephalopathy, our results suggest that HPIV-3 is at least as important as HRSV. Surveillance of the causative virus of encephalopathy, including HPIV-3, would help to clarify the actual status of encephalopathy, the cause of which is currently reported in less than half of cases in Japan.

    Download PDF (1175K)
  • Mian Wei, Toni Li, Siyuan Liu, Yushu Wang, Carolyn Tran, Guangyu Ao
    Article ID: JJID.2023.315
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Nafamostat mesylate, a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, has demonstrated early antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 and anticoagulant properties that may be beneficial in COVID-19. We conducted a meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy and safety of nafamostat mesylate for COVID-19 treatment. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, medRxiv and bioRxiv were searched up to July 2023 for studies comparing outcomes between nafamostat mesylate treatment and no nafamostat mesylate treatment in COVID-19 patients. Mortality, disease progression and adverse events were analyzed. Six studies involving 16,195 patients were included. Meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in mortality (OR=0.88, 95%CI: 0.20-3.75, P=0.86) or disease progression (OR=2.76, 95%CI: 0.31-24.68, P=0.36) between groups. However, nafamostat mesylate was associated with increased hyperkalemia risk (OR=7.15, 95%CI: 2.66 to 19.24, P<0.0001). Nafamostat mesylate does not improve mortality or morbidity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to no nafamostat mesylate treatment. The significant hyperkalemia risk is a serious concern requiring monitoring and preventative measures. Further research is needed in different COVID-19 populations.

    Download PDF (1232K)
  • Natsumi Nakashima, Wanchun Jin, Jun-ichi Wachino, Shinobu Koyama, Kiyo ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.339
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    All clinical isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) are considered susceptible to β-lactams, the first-line drugs used for SDSE infections. However, penicillin-non-susceptible SDSE has been reported from Denmark. In this study, we attempted to detect β-lactam-non-susceptible clinical isolates of SDSE in Japan. One hundred and fifty clinical isolates of S. dysgalactiae were collected in 2018, and species identification was performed using Rapid ID Strep API. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of six β-lactams (penicillin G, oxacillin, ceftizoxime, ceftibuten, cefoxitin, and cefaclor) were determined for 85 clinical isolates of SDSE using the agar dilution method standardized by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. For the 85 isolates identified as SDSE, the MIC ranges of penicillin G, oxacillin, ceftizoxime, ceftibuten, cefoxitin, and cefaclor were 0.007–0.06, 0.03–0.12, 0.015–0.06, 0.25–2, 0.12–2, and 0.06–0.5 μg/mL, respectively. None of the clinical isolates were non-susceptible to penicillin G, indicating that all 85 clinical isolates of SDSE were susceptible to β-lactams. Our findings indicate that almost all clinical isolates of SDSE in several prefectures of Japan remain susceptible to β-lactams. Nevertheless, there remains a need for continuous and careful monitoring of drug susceptibility among clinical isolates of SDSE in Japan.

    Download PDF (2852K)
  • Toshihiko Harada, Hirofumi Fujimoto, Shuetsu Fukushi, Koji Ishii, Ken- ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.349
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Since 2019, many studies on COVID-19, which has caused extensive damage as a pandemic, have been ongoing worldwide. These include serological and biochemical studies using sera from patients and animal models. Testing with these sera must be performed after the inactivation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Heat treatment, UV irradiation, and/or gamma-ray irradiation are used to inactivate viruses in serum. Determining the inactivation conditions that ensure the inactivation of viruses and minimize the effect on test results after inactivation is important to ensure worker safety and accuracy of test results. In this study, serum samples containing SARS-CoV-2 were subjected to heat, UV irradiation, and gamma irradiation to determine their inactivation conditions. The viral titers were below the detection limit after heating at 56°C for 1 h or 60°C for 15 min, UV-B irradiation with a transilluminator for 30 min, or gamma ray irradiation with 60Co at 10 kGy. These results provide useful information for safe serological and biochemical experiments.

    Download PDF (1116K)
  • Yoshitaka Kimura, Nami Hatayama, Yoshinori Sato, Satoshi Nishida, Yusu ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.364
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is an important pathogen that causes nosocomial infections and is resistant to almost all antibiotics, including carbapenems. Cefiderocol is a novel siderophore cephalosporin that is active against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative bacteria. However, the susceptibility of MDRAB from Japan to cefiderocol has not yet been reported. In this study, we measured the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics, including cefiderocol, against MDRAB clinical isolates collected during a nosocomial outbreak from 2009 to 2010 at Teikyo University Hospital in Japan. We found that all 10 MDRAB clinical isolates tested were susceptible to cefiderocol, with an MIC range of 0.12 to 1 μg/mL, all isolates were resistant to ampicillin-sulbactam, nine of the 10 isolates were susceptible to tigecycline, and all 10 isolates had an intermediate phenotype to colistin. DNA sequencing revealed that all strains harbored an OXA-51-like carbapenemase, one of the major causes of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii in Japan. In conclusion, this study showed that susceptibility to cefiderocol of MDRAB clinical isolates in Japan was equivalent to that of colistin or tigecycline. Cefiderocol could be a possible choice for the treatment of MDRAB infections.

    Download PDF (1232K)
  • José Mauricio Del Río-Chacón, Fabián Rojas-Larios, Paola Bocanegra-Iba ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.389
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a non-fermenting Gram-negative drug-resistant pathogen causing healthcare-associated infections. Clinical isolates from Mexico were assessed for biofilm production by crystal violet staining. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated using the broth microdilution method in planktonic and biofilm cells. The effect of antibiotics on the biofilm was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Fifty isolates were included in the study, of which 28.0% were biofilm producers (64.2% from blood and 35.7% from respiratory samples). Resistance to levofloxacin (8.0%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (44.0%) in planktonic cells increased to 100% in biofilm cells. Bacterial biofilm treated with several concentrations of both antibiotics was completely disrupted. In conclusion, S. maltophilia isolated from blood had higher biofilm production than those from respiratory samples. Resistance to antibiotics increased due to biofilm production. Antibiotic monotherapy might not be the best course of action for the treatment of S. maltophilia infections in Mexico, as they might also be causing biofilm production.

    Download PDF (1056K)
  • Burcu Bayyurt, Sevgi Baltacı, Nil Özbilüm Şahin, Serdal Arslan, Mehmet ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.411
    Published: January 31, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 31, 2024
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    COVID-19 is an pandemic that is still affecting today and has caused many deaths. Toll-like receptor (TLR) have an important role in the binding of disease agents to host cell, disease susceptibility and severity, host disease resistance, In this study, we investigated frequencies of TLR7 (C.4-151 A/G), TLR9 (T-1486C and G2848A), and TLR10 (720A/C and 992T/A) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 150 cases with COVID-19 and 171 control samples. We also observed whether TLR7, 9, and 10 were related with the COVID-19 disease severity. Furthermore, we analyzed the association between COVID-19 and some clinical parameters. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed for TLR7, 9 and 10 SNPs. TLR7 C.4-151 A/G G allele and GG genotype; TLR9 T-1486C C allele and TC, CC genotypes; and TLR10 720A/C C allele; TLR10 992T/A A allele and AA genotype frequencies were statistic significant in cases compared with controls (P<0.05*). In addition, there was a statistic significant difference in the distribution of TLR7, 9, and 10 allele and genotype frequencies between severity groups (P<0.05*). Our findings suggest that TLR7, 9, and 10 polymorphisms may be crucial on clinical course or susceptibility of the infection.

    Download PDF (1063K)
  • Mengke Yang, Yang Yang, Aiping Zhang, Mingyue Ni, Manman Liang, Bin Qu ...
    Article ID: JJID.2022.571
    Published: December 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease. Previous studies have mainly focused on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with SFTS, while pancreatic injury has received little attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of pancreatic injury on the prognosis of patients with SFTS. A total of 156 SFTS patients were included in the analysis from April 2016 to April 2022. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that pancreatic injury (OR=3.754, 95% CI 1.361-79.036, P=0.024) and neurological symptoms (OR=18.648, 95% CI 4.921-70.668, P<0.001) were independent risk factors for patient death. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that serum pancreatic enzymes (PEs) were predictive of progression to death in SFTS patients. The area under the curve (AUC) for amylase (AMY) was 0.711, with an optimal cut-off value of 95.5 (U/L), sensitivity of 96.4%, and specificity of 35.9%. Lipase (LIP) had an AUC of 0.754, an optimal cut-off value of 354.75 (U/L), a sensitivity of 75%, and a specificity of 67.2%. Thus, pancreatic injury is associated with a poor prognosis of SFTS and can be used as an important reference for SFTS disease determination and prognostic assessment.

    Download PDF (1212K)
  • Halef Okan Doğan, Mahir Budak, Kübra Doğan, Gözde Ertürk Zararsız, Ser ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.211
    Published: December 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The aim of this study was to examine leukotriene metabolism in COVID-19. A total of 180 people were included in the study. Of these, 60 were healthy controls, 60 were patients who needed intensive care unit (ICU), and 60 were patients who did not need intensive care (non-ICU). Serum levels of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-LO activating protein (ALOX5AP) and cysteinyl leukotriene (CYSLT) were measured and mRNA expressions of 5-LO, ALOX5AP and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1) were investigated. As compared to the control group, both non-ICU and ICU groups had lower levels of 5-LO and mRNA expression. ICU patients had lower levels of 5-LO and mRNA expression compared with non-ICU patients. The expression of CYSLTR1 mRNA was higher in patients compared to healthy controls. CYSLTR1 mRNA expression was found to be higher in ICU group than in non-ICU group. CYSLT levels were higher in the control group compared to both non-ICU and ICU patients. Due to the higher expressions of CYSLTR1 in patients than control group, selective leukotriene receptor blockers can be used as a treatment option. CYSLTR1 expressions were also higher in ICU group than non-ICU group. Thus, CYSLTR1 mRNA expression could be a promising biomarker of COVID-19 severity.

    Download PDF (1385K)
  • Ryo Matsumura, Daisuke Kobayashi, Kyo Itoyama, Haruhiko Isawa
    Article ID: JJID.2023.347
    Published: December 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In 2010, the Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) was discovered in ticks in China and has been shown to be distributed in several regions worldwide. Recently, cases of JMTV infection in humans have been reported in China and Kosovo, attracting much attention as an emerging tick-borne disease. In this study, we detected the JMTV genome in Amblyomma testudinarium ticks collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, during tick-borne virus surveillance conducted in the Kanto district. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the new JMTV strain is closely related to previous strains detected in Japan. This suggests that JMTV may have been maintained during an independent natural transmission cycle in Japan. In addition, unlike in other countries and regions, all JMTV strains in Japan were detected only in A. testudinarium ticks, suggesting that this tick species is the primary JMTV vector in Japan. This report is the first to detect JMTV in the Kanto region. Further studies are required to elucidate the potential risk of infection by this tick-borne virus in Japan. In particular, the prevalence of JMTV in wild animals should be examined to clarify its geographical distribution, host range, and transmission cycle in nature.

    Download PDF (1270K)
  • Kazuya Shirato, Reiko Suwa, Naganori Nao, Miyuki Kawase, Satoko Sugimo ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.350
    Published: December 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is genetically classified into two major subgroups, A and B, based on attachment glycoprotein (G) gene sequences, and the A2 subgroup is further separated into three subdivisions A2a, A2b (A2b1), and A2c (A2b2). The appearance of subgroup A2c viruses carrying a 180- or 111-nucleotide duplication in the G gene (A2c180nt-dup or A2c111nt-dup) have been reported in Japan and Spain. The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disrupted the epidemiological kinetics of other respiratory viruses, including hMPV. In this study, we analysed the sequences of hMPV isolates obtained from 2017 to 2022 in Tokyo and Fukushima, i.e., before and after COVID-19. Subgroup A hMPVs were detected in 2017 to 2019, and most cases were A2c111nt-dup, suggesting there was continuous momentum of this clade, identical to the global situation. Subgroup B, but not subgroup A, viruses were detected in 2022, after the COVID-19 peak. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these resumed subgroup B viruses were closely related to the viruses detected in 2013 to 2016 in Yokohama and in 2019 in Fukushima, suggesting a reappearance of local endemic viruses in East Japan.

    Download PDF (1338K)
  • Yusuke Inoue, Yoshihiro Kaku, Michiko Harada, Keita Ishijima, Yudai Ku ...
    Article ID: JJID.2023.400
    Published: December 28, 2023
    Advance online publication: December 28, 2023
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Some lyssaviruses, including the rabies virus (RABV), induce lethal neurological symptoms in humans. However, commercial vaccines have only been evaluated for their efficacy against RABV and not against other lyssaviruses. To assess cross-reactivity among lyssaviruses, including RABV, sera from rabbits inoculated with human and animal RABV vaccines and polyclonal antibodies from rabbits immunized with expression plasmids of the glycoproteins of all 18 lyssaviruses were prepared, and cross-reactivity was evaluated via virus-neutralization tests using RABV, European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1), Duvenhage virus (DUVV), Mokola virus (MOKV), and Lagos bat virus (LBV). The sera against RABV vaccines showed cross-reactivity with EBLV-1 and DUVV, which both belong to phylogroup I. However, the reactivity with MOKV and LBV in phylogroup II was notably limited or below the detection level. Next, we compared the cross-reactivity of the polyclonal antibodies against all the lyssavirus glycoproteins. Polyclonal antibodies had high virus-neutralization titers against the same phylogroup, but not against different phylogroups. Our findings indicate that a new vaccine should be developed for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis against lyssavirus infections.

    Download PDF (1149K)
feedback
Top