Recent progress in third-generation electrochemical biosensors based on the direct electron transfer of proteins is reviewed. The development of three generations of electrochemical biosensors is also simply addressed. Special attention is paid to protein-film voltammetry, which is a powerful way to obtain the direct electron transfer of proteins. Research activities on various kinds of biosensors are discussed according to the proteins (enzymes) used in the specific work.
2004 by The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry