2021 Volume 37 Issue 12 Pages 1655-1664
Methotrexate (MTX) is used as an immunosuppressant and antineoplastic drug in clinical practice. MTX is a parent drug and converts to MTX polyglutamates (MTXPGs) to exhibit its biological activity. Clinical studies found that MTXPG levels were associated with MTX response and toxicities, especially at low doses. Due to huge variance of MTX response and toxicities between individuals, therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary for its use in individualized therapy. Various chromatography methods coupled with ultraviolet-visible detector, fluorescence detector and mass spectrometry have been reported for MTXPG analysis in various biological matrices. The aim of this paper is to review the chromatographic based methods for the measurement of total and/or individual MTXPGs. We searched Embase, Science Direct and PubMed databases using “methotrexate polyglutamate” and “chromatography” as search terms, and found 745 articles. Of those, 14 articles were extracted for this study. The key steps for method development (sample pretreatment, parameter optimization of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, selection of internal standard) and validation (lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect and stability) were analyzed and summarized, which might be helpful for researchers to develop their own methods.