2001 年 1 巻 p. 81-94
In order to understand frameworks of reference inherent in each region, or in each region’s culture, we ought to create models and schemes that reflect sets of ideas peculiar to the region. As a part of such efforts, I propose a unitary model of religion and economy as reflecting characteristic of the Islamic Middle East, and, by extention, of other Islamic areas. Similar to its non-dualist understanding of religion and politics, Islam provides a system of law that integrates religion and economy. While religion and politics are often intertwined, with or without the unity of religion and politics, the economy and market are more often considered independent of religions. This feature of Islam thus proves to be quite peculiar. It is not just religious ethics that regulate the economy in Islam, but it is the economy which provides importance metaphors for the Islamic faith, in which faith in God is considered a “good trade.” This Islamic feature was losing its prevalence under modernization and Westernization in the 20th century and until the advent of the Islamic revival. Attempts to recreate Islamic economics, including the Islamic banking system, arose as a part of such revival efforts in recent decades.