Annals of Vascular Diseases
Online ISSN : 1881-6428
Print ISSN : 1881-641X
ISSN-L : 1881-641X
Review Article
Role of Simulated Training for Carotid Endarterectomy: A Systematic Review
Nadeem A. SiddiquiAmmar PirzadaShoaib BadiniFareed A. Shaikh
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2022 Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 253-259


Vascular surgery trainees often do not get to perform carotid endarterectomy (CEA) directly on the patients as it requires meticulous surgical technique and has a high risk of procedure-related complications. Hence, the role of simulation in training future vascular surgeons becomes essential. This review aims to assess the types and utility of simulators available for CEA. In this systematic review, all the studies performed on CEA simulation were included. The purpose of this review was to assess different types of simulators and their usefulness for CEA. We identified 122 articles, of which 10 were eligible for review. A variety of simulators, ranging from animal models, virtual reality simulators and commercially designed models with high fidelity options were used. Technical competence was the major domain assessed in the majority of the studies (n=8), whereas four studies evaluated anatomical and procedural knowledge. Blinding was done in five studies for assessment purposes. The majority of studies (n=9) found the simulation to be an effective tool for achieving technical competence. This review shows the potential usefulness of simulation in acquiring technical skills and procedural acumen for CEA. The available literature is unfortunately too diverse to have a common recommendation.

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