Particularly in patients with hemodialysis, cardiovascular mortality rate is extremely high. Polyvascular diseases develop at an early stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Pathophysiology includes insulin resistance and/or imbalance between nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin bioavailability as well as oxidative stress. The understanding in pathophysiology of vascular calcification and strategic treatment is a critical issue to achieve favorable outcome for the patients with CKD. In this article, we aim to review the cardiovascular disease for the patients with CKD with a particular emphasis on the clinical aspects of polyvascular disease. Finally, we address to detect microcirculatory impairment and eradicate vascular calcification as early as possible prior to renal replacement therapy. (This is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2016; 25: 359–365.)
International Session by Japan Chapter of the Society for Vascular Surgery Session2 Special Lecture
Autogenous vein grafts remain the gold standard conduit for arterial bypass, particularly for the treatment of critical limb ischemia. Vein graft adaptation to the arterial environment, i.e., adequate dilation and wall thickening, contributes to the superior performance of vein grafts. However, abnormal venous wall remodeling with excessive neointimal hyperplasia commonly causes vein graft failure. Since the PREVENT trials failed to improve vein graft outcomes, new strategies focus on the adaptive response of the venous endothelial cells to the post-surgical arterial environment. Eph-B4, the determinant of venous endothelium during embryonic development, remains expressed and functional in adult venous tissue. After surgery, vein grafts lose their venous identity, with loss of Eph-B4 expression; however, arterial identity is not gained, consistent with loss of all vessel identity. In mouse vein grafts, stimulation of venous Eph-B4 signaling promotes retention of venous identity in endothelial cells and is associated with vein graft walls that are not thickened. Eph-B4 regulates downstream signaling pathways of relevance to vascular biology, including caveolin-1, Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Regulation of the Eph-B4 signaling pathway may be a novel therapeutic target to prevent vein graft failure.
Objectives: Although venography guidance is helpful for central venous catheter placement, it is sometimes difficult to place a peripheral intravenous cannula for enhancement. We designed a new technique for establishing femoral venous access using venography guidance in the return phase of peripheral arteriography. This new technique was named arterial injection venous return guidance. Here we assessed the efficacy and safety of arterial injection venous return guidance.
Methods: We reviewed data of 29 infants less than 6 months old undergoing catheter intervention at our institute in 2014. Of the 29 patients, femoral venous cannulation was performed using arterial injection venous return guidance in 5 patients, venography in 20 patients, and the landmark method in 4 patients. The technical success rates and incidence of complications were compared.
Results: The overall success rates were 100% in the arterial injection venous return-guided and venography-guided groups. The mean procedure duration and mean contrast material injection time were similar between the groups. The contrast effect on the femoral vein in the arterial injection venous return-guided group was lower than that in the venography-guided group, but adequate for surgery. The overall complication rate was 17%, and obstruction of previously placed intravenous catheters was the most common complication.
Conclusions: Therefore, the arterial injection venous return guidance technique was as safe and efficient as venography for establishing venous access.
Objective: Endovascular repair has become the treatment of choice for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs). To improve surgical outcomes, preoperative management is important. In 2011, we introduced integrated management, which involves endovascular aneurysm repair, stabilization of hemodynamics by endovascular clamping, and open abdominal decompression to address abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS).
Methods: To evaluate the efficacy of this management strategy, 62 patients who had undergone emergency surgery for an RAAA were analyzed retrospectively: group A (n=39), where an old strategy was used, and group B (n=23), where integrated management was introduced. Patient characteristics and 30-day mortality rates were compared between the two groups.
Results: The average patient age was 67.7 years and 74.7 years for groups A and B, respectively (P=0.032). Group B patients required more frequent use of vasopressors (P=0.035). Other patient characteristics did not differ between the two groups. The duration of surgery was significantly shorter in group B than in group A (P=0.001). The total amount of transfused blood did not differ between the two groups. No patients showed symptoms of ACS. Early mortality rates were 12.8% and 8.7% in groups A and B, respectively. The number of wound infections was significantly fewer in group B than in group A.
Conclusion: Although group B patients were significantly older and had a higher rate of vasopressor use, early mortality was improved in both groups. Morbidity was significantly better in group B with respect to the duration of surgery and number of wound infections than in group A.
Purpose: A mycotic aneurysm is an uncommon disease associated with a high mortality rate when managed surgically. This study reviewed our experiences in the surgical management of mycotic aortic aneurysms.
Methods: In total, 26 patients who underwent surgery for a mycotic aneurysm were retrospectively reviewed. The mycotic aneurysms involved the thoracic aorta in 9 patients, the thoracoabdominal aorta in 4 patients, and the abdominal aorta in 13 patients. An overt aortic rupture in the mediastinum or retroperitoneal space was detected in 4 patients. Patients were classified into one of two groups, febrile or afebrile, and background characteristics, surgical intervention, and early and late mortalities were all compared.
Results: There were 19 patients who underwent open surgery, and 7 patients underwent endovascular repair. No significant differences in the clinical characteristics were found between the two groups; however, the incidence of postoperative complications was significantly higher in the febrile group than in the afebrile group (P=0.024). Overall mortality was 15.4% (4/26), and 30-day mortality was 7.7% (2/26).
Conclusion: Although febrile patients had a higher incidence of postoperative complications, surgical mortality from a mycotic aneurysm was within an acceptable range. Each patient should be thoroughly evaluated and treated on a case-by-case basis, using conventional open repair, endovascular repair, or a combination of both approaches.
We report successful thoracic endovascular repair of a pseudoaneurysm rupture in the ascending aorta using infrarenal endovascular devices after an aortic valve replacement. Complete exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm was achieved with no endoleak or postoperative complications. Despite limitations of the current technology, this endovascular technique was a relatively less invasive, feasible lifesaving surgical option for the repair of a pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta with a diameter ≤32 mm.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with associated horseshoe kidney (HSK) poses a technical challenge when performing conventional open surgical repair because of possible complications including renal infarction, neuralgia, and collecting system disruption. Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is considered the first-line treatment for this pathology, allowing for aneurysm repair without isthmus bisection. However, whether to sacrifice commonly presenting aberrant renal arteries during EVAR is a point of controversy. We report a case in which hybrid repair was performed for AAA to preserve aberrant renal vasculature in a patient with HSK.
We report two cases of persistent sciatic artery (PSA) aneurysm with limb ischemia. Physicians who treat peripheral artery disease should be aware that PSA is a very rare congenital malformation of the lower extremities that is potentially hazardous, and that revascularization should be performed when a PSA aneurysm is treated.
A 74-year-old man with hoarseness was diagnosed with a right-sided aortic arch and Kommerell’s diverticulum by computed tomography (CT). The diverticulum had a maximum diameter of 33 mm, and surgical intervention was chosen because of the possibility of rupture. A right common carotid to right subclavian artery bypass was constructed, stent-graft was placed after the branching of the right common carotid artery, and coil embolization of the diverticulum was performed via left brachial artery. No leaks were found on postoperative CT. Symptoms disappeared and the diverticulum became smaller soon after surgery. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for Kommerell’s diverticulum was safe and effective.
Perigraft seromas are uncommon after surgical repair of the thoracic aorta with woven polyester grafts. A 50-year-old woman required redo sternotomy for the treatment of a perigraft seroma 6 months after total arch replacement for acute type A dissection. After removal of a jelly-like mass, a prosthetic graft was covered with fibrin glue, and the bilateral pleurae beside the graft were opened widely for drainage of effusion into the bilateral pleural cavities. Bacterial culture and laboratory and histological examination of the content confirmed the final diagnosis of perigraft seroma. No evidence of recurrence was observed 4 months after drainage.
We report a rare case of retrograde Stanford type A aortic dissection after endovascular repair for complicated Stanford type B aortic dissection. A 45-year-old man presented with a sudden onset of back pain and was transferred to our hospital. Computed tomography demonstrated acute Stanford type B aortic dissection with lower limb ischemia. Emergency endovascular surgery was planned for repair of the Stanford type B aortic dissection. The patient suddenly developed recurrent chest pain 10 days after the initial procedure. Computed tomography revealed retrograde Stanford type A aortic dissection involving the ascending aorta and aortic arch. The patient underwent a successful emergency total aortic arch replacement.
Venous malformations (VMs) are the most common type of vascular malformations, resulting from errors in vascular morphogenesis. Because of the wide variety in their presentations, selecting the appropriate treatment, especially for large VMs, may be challenging. Herein, we report a case of a 59-year-old man with a large VM in the lower extremity who achieved favorable outcomes by complete surgical resection. Even large VMs can be successfully treated with surgery when patients are properly selected. An accurate and careful evaluation is essential for achieving optimal outcome in patients with VMs.
A 73-year-old man underwent emergency endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair (EVAR) for a ruptured infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. Two years after EVAR, he was admitted with a spiking fever and left lower back pain. Computed tomography scan revealed not only recurrent graft infection with psoas abscess but also infection around the orifice of the superior mesenteric artery. Because conservative medical therapy with antibiotics could not control the infection, we performed complete removal of the infected stent graft, debridement of psoas abscess, and in situ replacement of the thoracoabdominal aorta using rifampicin-soaked prosthetic grafts, followed by the omental flap. He was discharged with no complications.
Open surgery for a type Ib endoleak after thoracic endovascular aortic repair is associated with some knacks and pitfalls, particularly in cases wherein the distal edge of a stent graft is located at just supraceliac aorta and the renovisceral segment and infrarenal aorta do not require surgical intervention. Here we describe the invaginated graft insertion technique to provide an easy and secure anastomosis in such clinical situations. This procedure may be feasible for anastomosis between a prosthetic vascular graft and a previously deployed stent graft when the location of the anastomosis is distant from the surface of the skin incision with a narrow and limited surgical view.
We present the case of an 81-year-old female with flush occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Initially, the antegrade approach failed due to flush occlusion without stump. Hard, round surfaced, calcific, and eccentric plaque of the ostium of SFA was also present, which involved distal common femoral artery (CFA). Thus, we successfully used a Frontrunner catheter for retrograde reentry at the lower position of the CFA. Various treatment strategies involving Frontrunner and atherectomy devices could make percutaneous procedures possible in femoropopliteal occlusive disease, involving the CFA.
We report a rare case of type A dissection involving a right-sided aortic arch with an aberrant left subclavian artery originating from Kommerell’s diverticulum in a 76-year-old woman. Endovascular treatment for Kommerell’s diverticulum including intimal tear of the dissection was performed. At the 5-year follow-up, the patient was doing well, with no endoleak or dilatation of the Kommerell’s diverticulum.
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