CD34 is a cell surface marker, which is expressed in various somatic stem/progenitor cells such as bone marrow (BM)-derived hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), skeletal muscle satellite cells, epithelial hair follicle stem cells, and adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells. CD34+ cells in BM and peripheral blood are known as a rich source of EPCs. Thus, vascular regeneration therapy using granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized- or BM CD34+ cells has been carried out in patients with various vascular diseases such as chronic severe lower limb ischemia, acute myocardial infarction, refractory angina, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and dilated cardiomyopathy as well as ischemic stroke. Pilot and randomized clinical trials demonstrated the safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of the CD34+ cell therapy in peripheral arterial, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases. This review provides an overview of the preclinical and clinical reports of CD34+ cell therapy for vascular regeneration.