It has been reported that both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and macrophage colonystimulating factor (M-CSF) can induce osteoclast recruitment. Thus, VEGF and M-CSF are considered to be closely involved in the bone remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in VEGF and M-CSF expression during orthodontic treatment. The expression of VEGF and M-CSF mRNA in osteoblasts and fibroblasts was detected by in situ hybridization during experimental tooth movement in mice. Furthermore, the canine retraction side and the control side of orthodontic patients were compared, revealing a statistically significant increase in both VEGF and M-CSF concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid. These results suggest that orthodontic tooth movement causes an increase in VEGF and M-CSF levels. These factors may induce bone remodeling via osteoclastic bone resorption.
2008 Biomedical Research Press