Seizure-like burst activities are induced by blockade of GABAA and/or glycine receptors in various spinal ventral roots of brainstem-spinal cord preparation from neonatal rodents. We found that this is not applicable to the phrenic nerve and that a new inhibitory descending pathway may suppress seizure-like activity in the phrenic nerve. Experiments were performed in brainstem-spinal cord preparation from newborn rats (age: 0–1 day). Left phrenic nerve and right C4 activities were recorded simultaneously. When GABAA and glycine receptors were blocked by 10 μM bicuculline and 10 μM strychnine (Bic+Str), seizure-like burst activities appeared in the fourth cervical ventral root (C4) but not the phrenic nerve. After making a transverse section at C1, the inspiratory burst activity disappeared from both C4 and the phrenic nerve, whereas seizure-like activity appeared in both nerves. We hypothesized that inhibitory descending pathways other than those via GABAA and/or glycine receptors (from the medulla to the spinal cord) work to avoid disturbance of regular respiratory-related diaphragm contraction by seizure-like activity. We found that cannabinoid receptor antagonist, AM251 was effective for the induction of seizure-like activity by Bic+Str in the phrenic nerve in brainstem-spinal cord preparation. Cannabinoid receptors may be involved in this descending inhibitory system.
To clarify the role of the aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in salivary secretion, we evaluated acetylcholine (ACh)-induced secretion in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, rats expressing a low level of AQP5 protein (AQP5/low SD) which developed from SD rats, and Wistar/ST rats. The salivary secretion in AQP5/low SD rats in response to infusions of low-dose ACh (60–120 nmol/min) was 27–42% of that in SD rats. By contrast, Wistar/ST rats exhibited comparable secretion to that of SD rats in response to low-doses ACh, despite their low-level expression of AQP5. Experiments using spectrofluorometry and RT-PCR demonstrated no differences in the ACh-induced Ca2+ responses or the mRNA expression of muscarinic receptor, Cl− channel, or cotransporter between these strains. These findings imply that factors other than the function of salivary acinar cells regulates the secretion in response to weak stimuli. Monitoring of the hemodynamics in the submandibular gland revealed that low-doses ACh induced different patterns of the fluctuations in the blood flow in these strains. The blood flow decreased below the resting level in AQP5/low SD rats, but remained mostly above the resting level in Wistar/ST rats. The present study reveals that the contribution of AQP5-dependent transport of water is altered by stimulus intensity and blood flow.
Mice devoid of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 due to gene targeting have been reported to show articular cartilage destruction in the knee joint; however, the phenotype of the mandibular condylar cartilage remains unknown. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the mandibular condyle in Mmp2−/− mice. We obtained and bred Mmp2−/− mice from the same source as the previous study, and performed genotyping using genomic DNA extracted from finger snips. The mandibular condyle of Mmp2−/− mice and wild-type (WT) mice was immunohistochemically examined for the localization of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (type I and II collagen, and aggrecan), and MMP-9 and MMP-13. No cartilage destruction was observed in the mandibular condyle of Mmp2−/− mice, and no difference was found in the localization of the ECM proteins between the Mmp2−/− mice and WT mice. However, the bone marrow cavity in the subchondral bone of the mandibular condyle was more distinct in Mmp2−/− mice than in WT mice at the age of 50 weeks. Of note, MMP-9 characteristically localized in multinucleated cells in the mandibular condyle in 50-week-old Mmp2−/− mice. MMP-2 may be involved in the regulation of osteoclast differentiation and the formation of the bone marrow cavity in aged mice.
A cleft lip, with or without a cleft palate, is a common birth defect caused by environmental factors or genetic mutations. Environmental factors, such as pharmaceutical exposure in pregnant women, are known to induce cleft lip, with or without cleft palate in the child. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Sasa veitchii extract (SE) on phenytoin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation in human lip mesenchymal cells (KD cells) and human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells (HEPM cells). We demonstrated that cell proliferation was inhibited by phenytoin in a dose-dependent manner in both KD and HEPM cells. Co-treatment with SE restored phenytoin-induced toxicity in KD cells but did not protect HEPM cells against phenytoin-induced toxicity. Several microRNAs (miR-27b, miR-133b, miR-205, miR-497-5p, and miR-655-3p) is reported to associate with cell proliferation in KD cells. We measured the seven kinds of microRNAs (miR27b-3p, miR-27b-5p, miR-133b, miR-205-3p, miR-205-5p, miR-497-5p, and miR-655-3p) and found that SE suppressed miR-27b-5p induced by phenytoin in KD cells. Furthermore, co-treatment with SE enhanced the expression of miR-27b-5p downstream genes (PAX9, RARA, and SUMO1). These results suggest that SE protects phenytoin-induced cell proliferation inhibition by modulating miR-27b-5p.