2018 Volume 39 Issue 5 Pages 231-240
The innate immune system is a prerequisite for biophylactic ability, but its dysregulation can cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To determine a safe method of controlling inflammatory reactions in the brain, we examined the effects of gnetin C, a natural resveratrol dimer, on C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL5 (pro-inflammatory chemokines) production observed after treatment with polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid [poly IC; a synthetic analog of dsRNA as a Toll-like receptor 3 (TRL3) ligand, 30 μg/mL] in cultured human astrocytoma U373MG and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The addition of gnetin C (10 μM) to the media moderately reduced the CCL2 production and markedly suppressed CCL5 production in both cells. In the TLR3–interferon (IFN)-β–phosphorylated-STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1)RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) pathway that mediates CCL2 and CCL5 production, gnetin C first inhibits IFN-β expression in SH-SY5Y cells and primarily inhibits STAT1 phosphorylation in U373MG cells. In any case, gnetin C attenuated the dsRNA-activated TLR3 signaling resulting in CCL2 and CCL5 production, thus, may be useful for controlling TLR3-mediated inflammation in the brain.