Volume 15 (2018) Pages 51-57
Self-propelled rods, which propel by themselves in the direction from the tail to the head and align nematically through collision, have been well-investigated theoretically. Various phenomena including true long-range ordered phase with the Giant number fluctuations, and the collective motion composed of many vorices were predicted using the minimal mathematical models of self-propelled rods. Using filamentous bacteria and running microtubules, we found that the predicted phenomena by the minimal models occur in the real world. This strongly indicates that there exists the unified description of self-propelled rods independent of the details of the systems. The theoretically predicted phenomena and the experimental results concerning the phenomena are reviewed.