Article ID: 2021.01094
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, and cirrhosis is a risk factor for HCC. Resection is indicated for those unilobar tumors without vascular invasion and metastases in the liver and preserved liver function. Small HCC (< 2 cm) without microvascular invasion is associated with a 5-year recurrence rate as high as 50% to 60%, whereas liver transplantation is indicated for those within the Milan criteria (solitary tumor ≤ 5 cm or two or three nodules ≤ 3 cm) who have decompensated cirrhosis. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of living donor liver transplantation for HCC are 85%, 75%, and 70%, respectively. This review summarizes the scientific evidence supporting the clinical practice recommendations for patients with HCC, and it discusses surgical treatment of HCC.