1997 年 18 巻 1 号 p. 27-38
This paper investigates the characteristics of the comprehensive school guidance & counseling program of the U.S. to learn the effective model upon which restructuring of the Japanese school guidance system shall be based. It shows that the American program consists of the following ten elements: Student competencies, definition, rationale, assumptions, guidance curriculum, individual planning, responsive services, system support, counselor time, and human, financial, and political resources. The analysis of seven state-level guidance and counseling manuals in terms of the program comprehensiveness shows that most of them are constructed using a comprehensive guidance program model. Restructuring the out-dated Japanese guidance system and employment of full-time guidance professionals in the schools are proposed in order to establish effective schools for the twenty-first century.