In the Arctic region, the glacier and the sea ice are melting rapidly. This melting process leads to the drastic changes of the surface ocean environments by supplying fresh water and biogeochemical components. For example, the glacier melting provides minerals and nutrients from the land to the ocean, and these processes were depending on the type of the glacier between land- and marine-terminating glaciers. In addition, sea ice melting dilutes the chemical components (e.g., CO2) in the surface water, leading the decrease of the CO2 concentration with respect to the atmosphere, and increases the absorption of the atmospheric CO2. In this review, we assess the effects of glacier and sea ice melting on the biogeochemical cycles of the surface water (e.g., nutrients, iron, CO2, and CH4) in the Arctic Ocean based on the previous and our studies. We also discuss future biogeochemical cycles in the Arctic Ocean.