Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology
Online ISSN : 1347-7358
Print ISSN : 0918-5739
Bone age: assessment methods and clinical applications
Mari Satoh
Author information

2015 Volume 24 Issue 4 Pages 143-152


The main bone age assessment methods are the Greulich-Pyle and Tanner-Whitehouse 2 methods, both of which involve left hand and wrist radiographs. Several other bone age assessment methods have been developed, including ultrasonographic, computerized, and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods. The ultrasonographic method appears unreliable in children with delayed and advanced bone age. MR imaging is noninvasive; however, bone age assessment using MR imaging is relatively new, and further examinations are needed. An automated method for determining bone age, named BoneXpert, has been validated for Caucasian children with growth disorders and children of various ethnic groups. Sex hormones are necessary for bone growth and maturation in children with a bone age corresponding to normal pubertal age, and estrogen is essential for growth plate closure. Bone age is an effective indicator for diagnosing and treating various diseases. A new method for adult height prediction based on bone age has been developed using BoneXpert, in addition to the commonly used Bayley-Pinneau and Tanner-Whitehouse mark II methods. Furthermore, bone age may become a predictor for the timing of peak height velocity and menarche.

Information related to the author
© 2015 by The Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
Next article