2019 Volume 13 Issue 2 Pages 101-107
Acute febrile illness (AFI) is one of the commonest indications for hospitalization and can present with varying severity including single or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). During monsoon season, there is a spurt of AFI often caused by vector borne diseases leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to determine distribution of etiological causes, differential organ involvement and predictors of mortality in critically ill patients with AFI. It was a hospital based observational study which included patients with AFI with dysfunction of at least one organ system. The study was conducted over 4 months during monsoon season. Admitted patients were included who had been subjected to a standard battery of tests and managed with standard hospital based management protocol. 145 patients were included and etiology of fever was ascertained in 81.4% of patients with the most common single infection being chikungunya (20.7%) followed by dengue (20%) fever. Thrombocytopenia and deranged liver biochemistry each were seen in nearly 75% of the patients. Renal (50.3%) and nervous system (46.2%) dysfunction were the predominant organ failures. 49 patients died (33.8%) which correlated with predicted mortality by APACHE (acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation) II score. Independent predictors for mortality were older age (> 55 years) (p = 0.01), acidemia (p = 0.01), altered sensorium (p = 0.02) and coagulopathy (p = 0.048). Sub-group analysis revealed that amongst patients with MODS, hypotension could help differentiate between bacterial and non-bacterial causes (p = 0.01). Critically ill patients with AFI suffer from significant morbidity and mortality. Features like the presence of hypotension in MODS may differentiate between a bacterial cause vis-à-vis viral or protozoal etiology.