Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) often develop into hard-to-heal wounds due to complex factors. Several biomarkers capable of identifying those at risk of delayed wound healing have been reported. Controlling or targeting these biomarkers could prevent the progression of DFUs into hard-to-heal wounds. This scoping review aimed to identify the key biomarkers that can predict hard-to-heal DFUs. Studies that reported biomarkers related to hard-to-heal DFUs, from 1980 to 2023, were mapped. Studies were collected from the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and ICHUSHI (Japana Centra Revuo Medicina), search terms included "diabetic," "ulcer," "non-healing," and "biomarker." A total of 808 articles were mapped, and 14 (10 human and 4 animal studies) were included in this review. The ulcer characteristics in the clinical studies varied. Most studies focused on either infected wounds or neuropathic wounds, and patients with ischemia were usually excluded. Among the reported biomarkers for the prediction of hard-to-heal DFUs, the pro-inflammatory cytokine CXCL-6 in wound fluid from non-infected and non-ischemic wounds had the highest prediction accuracy (area under the curve: 0.965; sensitivity: 87.27%; specificity: 95.56%). CXCL-6 levels could be a useful predictive biomarker for hard-to-heal DFUs. However, CXCL6, a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes, elicits its chemotactic effects by combining with the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2, and is involved in several diseases. Therefore, it's difficult to use CXCL6 as a prevention or treatment target. Targetable specific biomarkers for hard-to-heal DFUs need to be determined.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting fertility and mental health among women of reproductive age. In addition to anovulation and hyperandrogenism, patients also experience metabolic issues, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia, as well as chronic low-grade inflammation throughout the body. Recent studies have shown that even with assisted reproductive technology to treat anovulatory issues, patients with PCOS still have higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes and abortion compared to normal pregnancies. These findings suggest that PCOS may impair the endometrium and disrupt the onset and maintenance of healthy pregnancies. Decidualization is a crucial step in the process of healthy pregnancy, during which endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) differentiate into secretory decidual stromal cells (DSCs) regulated by hormones and local metabolism. This article comprehensively reviews the pathological processes of PCOS and the mechanisms involved in its impaired decidualization. In addition, we explore how PCOS increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO). By gaining a better understanding of the adverse effects of PCOS on pregnancy and its specific mechanisms, we hope to provide a theoretical basis for reducing APO and improving the live birth rate among women with PCOS.
The incidence of breast cancer has exhibited an annually increasing trend, and the disease has become the most common malignant tumour worldwide. Currently, the primary treatment for breast cancer is surgical resection. However, metastatic recurrence is the main cause of cancer-related death in this patient population. Various factors are associated with breast cancer prognosis, and anaesthesia-induced changes in the tumour microenvironment have attracted increasing attention. To date, however, it remains unclear whether anaesthetic drugs have a positive or negative impact on cancer outcomes after surgery. The present article reviews the effects of different anaesthetics on the postoperative prognosis of breast cancer surgery to guide the choice of anaesthetic technique(s) and agents for such patients.
The package inserts of prescription drugs provide essential information for the proper administration of pharmacotherapy. The incidence of adverse reactions for several drugs is known to be higher in women than in men. However, no studies have examined whether information on gender differences is included in Japanese package inserts. Therefore, this study investigated information on gender differences in the package inserts of Japanese prescription drugs, using the drug information database JAMES provided by the Medical Information System Development Center and the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center. Non-proprietary names of prescription drugs were yielded 1,679 in Japan. Of the 1,679 ingredients in package inserts of prescription drugs, 76 (4.5%) included information on gender differences. The number of inserts that contained information on gender differences in the "DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION," "ADVERSE REACTIONS," and "PHARMACOKINETICS" sections was 3, 16, and 62, respectively. Furthermore, in the "ADVERSE REACTIONS" section, 15 of the 16 inserts mentioned a higher frequency of adverse reactions in women compared with men. Importantly, most of the inserts with information on gender differences in the "PHARMACOKINETICS" section mentioned a higher area under the curve for women than for men. Most of the package inserts of prescription drugs with information on gender differences provide useful information aimed at preventing risks in women. However, there is an extreme lack of information on gender differences in the package inserts of prescription drugs in Japan, and we consider enhancing information on gender difference as an urgent issue.
The effects of acute intratracheal administration of electrolyzed reduced water (ERW; alkaline electrolyzed water) were investigated in rats. In this study, no deaths or near-deaths were recorded in either group, namely those treated with ERW or purified water (maximum doses of 900 mg/kg). The main symptoms observed in the rats were decreased spontaneous movements and abnormal breath sounds, which were considered to be transient symptoms caused by intratracheal administration. In addition, low values of alkaline phosphatase, total protein and lactate dehydrogenase were found in BALF tests, but these values were considered to be of low toxicological significance, since they are usually high in the presence of lung inflammation or cellular damage. This suggests that the alkalinity of ERW partially contributes to broken peptide bonds in proteins. There were no significant increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein in either group. ERW did not cause an increase in the influx of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, or lymphocytes, suggesting that intratracheal administration of ERW did not cause lung inflammation. ERW did not cause abnormalities in the body or pathological changes in the lungs. Aggregates of alveolar macrophages, as a measure of inflammation, were observed in both groups. These may be transient symptoms due to intratracheal administration, not due to ERW toxicity. This study confirmed the safety of intratracheal ERW infusion and demonstrated the low risk of acute toxicity for inhalation exposure to ERW aerosol or vapor. Therefore, ERW may be an effective air purifier against viruses or bacteria.
Physicochemical properties (drug release, peel strength, adhesion, and stiffness) of Hokunalin® Tape (Hokunalin) and 13 generic transdermal bronchodilator patches containing tulobuterol were characterized and evaluated for comparison. Drug-release studies evaluating sustained release behavior demonstrated better performance by the drug Hokunalin, than the generics MED, YP, Sawai, and Teikoku. Hokunalin yield a 16.2% release 1 hour after initiation, 30.1% at 3 hours, 50.0% at 8 hours. In comparison, the generics MED, YP, Sawai, and Teikoku showed an intermediate release behavior to that of Hokunalin, with more than 80% release after 8 hours. A 90-degree peel adhesion test for tape peel strength demonstrated that the generic MED (4.99 N), YP (3.26 N), Sawai (4.17 N), and Teikoku (4.37 N) tapes yielded significantly higher values compared to Hokunalin (2.66 N). Probe tack tests, evaluating adhesive strength, yielded significantly higher values for the generics HMT (4.89 N)and Towa (4.25 N) compared to Hokunalin (3.66 N). Furthermore, for the stiffness-softness test, a significantly higher value was obtained for each generic yielded compared to Hokunalin (3.7-degree). These factors are important components of product qualities that affect treatment efficacy, including "ease of application" and other usability factors.
The altered behaviors and functions of pelvic floor fibroblasts are pathophysiological changes of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Our previous study showed that advanced glycated end products (AGEs) accumulated in the pelvic tissues of POP and induced fibroblast apoptosis. The study was designed to investigate whether quercetin antagonize AGEs-induced apoptosis and functional inhibition of fibroblasts. The uptake of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) was evaluated for cell proliferation. Flow cytometric analysis was applied for cell apoptosis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content was determined by the fluorescence of dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The contractility of fibroblasts was measured by collagen gel contraction assay. The expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM) related genes and the expression of miR-4429 and caspase-3 were quantified by qPCR. The expressions of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), serine-threonine kinase (Akt), and phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) were analyzed by Western Blot. The down-regulation of miR-4429 was achieved by cell transfection. Quercetin antagonized AGEs-induced apoptosis, proliferation inhibition, and ROS increase in fibroblasts. Quercetin did not alleviate AGEs-induced contractile impairment of fibroblasts. Quercetin reduced the gene expressions of lysyl oxidase like protein 1 (LOXL1)and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1), and increased the gene expressions of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and fibrillin 2 (FBN2) in fibroblasts. Quercetin reversed AGEs-induced upregulation of PTEN and downregulation of PI3K, P-Akt, and miR-4429 in fibroblasts. The inhibitory effect of quercetin on AGEs-induced fibroblast apoptosis was inhibited by downregulating the expression of miR-4429. In conclusion, quercetin antagonized AGEs-induced apoptosis and functional inhibition of fibroblasts from the prolapsed uterosacral ligament. And inhibiting AGEs-induced down-regulation of miR-4429/PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway was the mechanism underlying the antagonistic effect of quercetin on AGEs-induced apoptosis.
Olaparib is a small-molecule inhibitor of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) used as maintenance therapy for recurrent ovarian cancer and newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer after initial chemotherapy. An exposure-toxicity correlation has been reported between the probability of anemia, a common adverse event associated with olaparib, and the steady-state minimum plasma concentration (Cmin) as well as the predicted maximum plasma concentration (Cmax). On the other hand, olaparib exhibits high interpatient variability with regard to the area under the concentration-time curve, Cmax, and Cmin. Therefore, we developed a simple and sensitive assay based on high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light (HPLC-UV) for the therapeutic drug monitoring of olaparib. The analysis was performed on an octadecylsilyl column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.5% KH2PO4 (pH 4.5) and acetonitrile (71:29, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Olaparib and an internal standard (imatinib) were well separated from the co-extracted material, with retention times of 13.6 and 11.5 min, respectively. The calibration curve for olaparib showed linearity over the concentration range of 0.10-10.0 μg/mL (r2 = 0.9998). The intra- and inter- day validation coefficients ranged from 1.79 to 4.13% and 1.37 to 3.55%, respectively. Measurement accuracy ranged from − 6.07 to 3.26%, with a recovery rate of more than 91.06%. The developed method was then applied to evaluate the plasma olaparib concentrations in patients with ovarian cancer. Our findings demonstrate that HPLC-UV is an economical, simple, and sensitive method for clinical application and holds promise for the effective drug monitoring of olaparib during ovarian cancer treatment.
D-Amino acid oxidase (DAO), a D-amino acid metabolizing enzyme, is reportedly associated with the psychiatric disease schizophrenia, suggesting a role for DAO inhibitors in its treatment. We have previously reported that DAO catalyzes the conversion of nonfluorescent 6-methylthio-D-kynurenine (MeS-D-KYN) to fluorescent 5-methylthiokynurenic acid (MeS-KYNA) in vitro. The present study aimed to determine the potential of MeS-D-KYN in evaluating DAO activity in vivo using renal microdialysis technique in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to linear microdialysis probe implantation in the left kidney. Continuous perfusion of MeS-D-KYN was maintained, and DAO activity in the kidney cortex was evaluated by measuring the MeS-KYNA content in the microdialysate. The microdialysate was collected every 30 min and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, monitored at 450 nm with an excitation wavelength of 364 nm. A significant production of MeS-KYNA was observed during, but not before, infusion of MeS-D-KYN, indicating that this compound is not endogenous. MeS-KYNA production was suppressed by the co-infusion of DAO inhibitor, 5-chlorobenzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol (CBIO), suggesting that MeS-D-KYN was converted to MeS-KYNA by renal DAO. Moreover, oral administration of CBIO effectively suppressed DAO activity in a dose-dependent manner. DAO converted MeS-D-KYN to MeS-KYNA in vivo, suggesting the potential of this compound in evaluating DAO activity. The use of the renal microdialysis technique developed in this study facilitates the monitoring of DAO activity in live experimental animals.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe and progressive neurodegenerative disease, and the treatment options that are currently available are limited. The amyloid cascade hypothesis has had a significant influence in explaining the pathology underlying AD. Inhibiting the production and aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and promoting its clearance have been important strategies in the development of anti-AD drugs over the past two decades. Specifically, Aβ directed antibodies have been highly anticipated, but drug development has been fraught with obstacles and challenges. Antibodies targeting the C-terminal or central region of Aβ, such as ponezumab, solanezumab, and crenezumab, primarily bind to Aβ monomers, yet no significant clearance of brain plaques or slowing of disease progression has been observed in clinical trials. Antibodies targeting the N-terminal region of Aβ, including aducanumab, lecanemab, and donanemab, primarily bind to aggregated forms of Aβ, and have shown efficacy in clearing brain plaques and slowing early-stage AD progression in clinical trials. However, clinical trials of gantenerumab, which targets conformational epitopes in the N-terminal and central sequences of Aβ and which selectively binds to aggregated forms, have failed, raising some new questions about the Aβ hypothesis. Advances in research on the pathological mechanisms of AD and advances in early diagnostic techniques may shift the time window for drug intervention and offer a potential pathway for developing effective drugs to delay the onset and progression of AD in the future.