2022 Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 305-308
Clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) poses a challenge. The Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) has displayed greater sensitivity at diagnosing tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance compared to the Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). However, whether Ultra is able to facilitate an auxiliary diagnosis of TB in patients with an HIV-TB co-infection remains unclear. Accordingly, the current study evaluated the use of Ultra in patients with an HIV-TB co-infection by summarizing relevant studies. The sensitivity and specificity of Ultra and Xpert at diagnosing patients with an HIV-TB co-infection have been summarized and compared. The performance of Ultra in diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis was also summarized. Although a large-cohort, multi-center study needs to be conducted to assess Ultra's ability to detect TB in AIDS patients in the future, the current evidence supports the use of Ultra for the assessment of patients with an HIV-TB co-infection.