2022 Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 31-35
Second harmonic generation (SHG) is a unique non-linear optical effect that can be used to investigate chemical states of molecules at surfaces/interfaces. By the use of soft X-rays, SHG gains element selectivity through the inner-core excitation resonance. However, it is challenging to observe SHG signals separately from the second-order light generated from the undulator. Here, we report a new ellipsometry method for soft X-ray SHG to suppress the contribution of second-harmonic radiation from the light source. Through measurements of a GaAs(100) crystal, we demonstrate that pure SHG signals can be obtained for the horizontally polarized component. The present method is generally applicable regardless of the incident photon energy and hence the absorption edge of the targeted materials. If combined with optical filters blocking the second-harmonic radiation and equipped with soft X-ray phase shifters, the method allows one to obtain further information from SHG signals such as tensor components of second-order non-linear susceptibility.